Quantum computers are the future, says Microsoft CEO Satya Nadella. And he has put Microsofts money where his mouth is, making quantum computing one of the three pillars of Microsofts strategy going forward. Along with AI and mixed/augmented reality, its an area where Nadella believes that Microsoft can make a significant impact, and where it can differentiate itself from its competition.
But building a quantum computer is hard. Microsofts current progress is the result of more than 20 years of research investment, working with universities around the world, mixing pure physics with computer science, and turning experimental ideas into products. Theres a lot of ambition here, with the eventual aim of building scalable quantum computers that anyone can use.
Microsofts approach to quantum computing differs from the technologies used by companies like DWave, taking a new approach to creating the qubits, the quantum bits at the heart of the process. Working with university researchers, Microsoft has been exploring use of a new type of particle, the Majorana fermion. Initially proposed in the late 1930s, Marjorana particles have only recently been detected in semiconductor nanowires at very low temperatures.
Compared to other qubit approaches, the Majorana particles used by Microsofts quantum computers are more stable and have lower error rates, spreading out the electron state across a topological knot thats less likely to evaporate when its state is read. This topological approach to quantum computing is something that Nadella calls a transistor moment for quantum computers. It might not be the quantum processor, but its the first step on that road.
Working with a quantum computer is very different from the machines we use today. A bits 1s and 0s are replaced by a qubit with a statistical blur of fractionalized electrons that needs interpretation. With qubits temperatures at near absolute zero, another specialised low-temperature (cryogenic) computer is used to program the qubits and read results, working with quantum algorithms to solve complex problemsand promising nearly instantaneous answers to problems that could take thousands, or even millions, of years with a modern supercomputer.
You can think of the relationship between the cryogenic controller and programs running on the ultralow-temperature quantum computer as something akin to how deep-sea divers work on underwater oil rigs. The quantum computer is the well head, isolated from the rest of the world by temperature. That makes the cryogenic control computer the equivalent of a divers pressurized diving bell, giving the programs a stepping stone between the normal temperatures of the outside world and the extreme cold of the quantum refrigerator, much like how a diving bell prepares divers for working at extreme depths.
Microsofts quantum computers are unlikely to run in your own datacenters. They require specialized refrigerators to chill the qubits, which are built from carefully grown nanowires. Microsofts consortium of universities can manufacture each part separately, bringing them together to deliver the current generation of test systems.
Microsoft intends to embed its quantum hardware in Azure, running a quantum simulator to help test quantum code before its deployed to actual quantum computers. Microsoft is also working on a new language to help developers write quantum code in Visual Studio.
Microsoft Research has already delivered a first cut at a quantum programming environment in Liqui|> (usually referred to as Liquid), a set of tools to simulate a 30-qubit environment on a PC with 32GB of memory. Microsoft says youll be able to deploy large quantum simulators with more than 40 qubits in 16TB on Azure, though solving problems of that size will take a long time without the acceleration of a real quantum computer.
Still, with Liquid, you can experiment with key quantum computing concepts using F#, seeing how youll build algorithms to handle complex mathematical concepts, as well as understanding how to work with low-level error-correction algorithms.
Microsofts new quantum computing language will build on lessons learned with Liquid, but it wont be based on F#. The languages name hasnt been revealed yet, but amusingly some early screenshots of quantum code being edited in Visual Studio appeared to use the same file extension as the classic Quick Basic.
I recently spoke with Krysta Svore, the lead of Microsoft Research s Redmond Quantum computing group, which works on building the software side of Microsofts planned scalable quantum computer. Its a fascinating side of the project, taking the low-level quantum algorithms needed to work with experimental hardware and finding ways of generating them from familiar high-level languages. If Svores team is successful, you wont need to know about the quantum computer youre programming; instead, youll write code, publish it to Azure, and run it.
The goal is that youll be able to concentrate on your code, not think about the underlying quantum circuitry. For example, instead of building the connections needed to construct a quantum Fourier transform, youll call a QFT library, writing additional code to prepare, load, and read data. As Svore notes, many quantum algorithms are hybrids, mixing preprocessing and postprocessing with quantum actions, often using them as part of loops run in a classical supercomputer.
Theres also a role for AI techniques, using machine learning to identify elements of code, understanding where and how they work best.
Developers who experiment with Liquid will be able to bring their applications to the new platform, with migration tools to help with the transition. Using the Azure-based quantum simulator should help, because it supports many more qubits than a PC does. Itll also let you explore working with execution-based parallelism, where you run multiple passes over the same data, rather than the more familiar GPGPU data parallelism model.
You can get a feel for what this means for computing when you consider an 80-qubit operation. Svore notes that a single operation in a quantum computer takes 100ns, no matter how many qubits you have. The same operation in a classical computer would require more particles than in the visible universe, taking longer than the lifetime of the universe. Solving that type of problem in 100ns is a huge leap forward, one that opens new directions for scientific computing.
Microsofts quantum computing work is a big bet on the future of computing. Today, its a long way from every day use, still in the domain of pure research, even if that research is coming up with promising results.
Where Microsofts quantum-computing work really will make a difference is if it can deliver a programming environment that will let us take hard problems and turn them into quantum algorithms quickly and repeatedly, without having to go beyond the familiar world of IDEs and parallel programming constructs. Getting that right will really change the world, in ways we cant yet imagine.
Read the original post:
Inside Microsofts quantum computing world | InfoWorld
- This is what a 50-qubit quantum computer looks like - January 15th, 2018
- Microsoft Takes Path Less Traveled to Build a Quantum ... - December 13th, 2017
- Researchers create new type of quantum computer | Harvard Gazette - December 12th, 2017
- Microsoft releases quantum computing development kit preview ... - December 12th, 2017
- Intel moves towards production quantum computing with new 17 ... - October 11th, 2017
- Quantum computer a possibility in 10 years - News.com.au - NEWS.com.au - September 7th, 2017
- Scientists Propose a New Kind of Quantum Computer, But What ... - Gizmodo - September 7th, 2017
- Quantum detectives in the hunt for the world's first quantum computer - Phys.Org - September 7th, 2017
- Scientists Just Found A Use For The Hashtag In Quantum Computing - Gizmodo Australia - September 4th, 2017
- The Future of AI: From Quantum Computing to the Internet of Things - Outer Places - September 4th, 2017
- We're About to Cross The 'Quantum Supremacy' Limit in Computing - ScienceAlert - September 2nd, 2017
- Explaining the Most Recent Record for Quantum Computing: A 51-Qubit Quantum Computer Array - All About Circuits - September 2nd, 2017
- USRA Upgrades D-Wave Quantum Computer to 2000 Qubits - insideHPC - September 1st, 2017
- Quantum encrypted box hints at unhackable communication - Wired.co.uk - September 1st, 2017
- Quantum Computer Programming: What You Need to Learn to Get ... - TrendinTech - September 1st, 2017
- Google's John Martinis Believes Quantum Computing Threat to Be Long Way Off - Bitcoin News (press release) - August 31st, 2017
- Australian quantum computing outfit goes commercial - Networks Asia - August 31st, 2017
- Elusive Majorana Particle Takes Major Step Towards Quantum Computing - IEEE Spectrum - August 29th, 2017
- Australia gets quantum computing company - ACS (registration) - August 28th, 2017
- Quantum Computing and Financial Trading - LeapRate - August 28th, 2017
- Russians Lead the Quantum Computer Race With 51-Qubit Machine - Edgy Labs (blog) - August 28th, 2017
- Bitcoin vs. The NSAs Quantum Computer Bitcoin Not Bombs - August 26th, 2017
- qBitcoin: A Way of Making Bitcoin Quantum-Computer Proof? - IEEE Spectrum - August 26th, 2017
- Hype and cash are muddying public understanding of quantum ... - Phys.Org - August 26th, 2017
- Silicon Quantum Computing launched to commercialise UNSW ... - ZDNet - August 23rd, 2017
- IEEE Approves Standards Project for Quantum Computing ... - Business Wire (press release) - August 23rd, 2017
- Introducing Australia's first quantum computing hardware company - CIO Australia - August 23rd, 2017
- What is quantum computer? - Definition from WhatIs.com - August 22nd, 2017
- Hype and cash are muddying public understanding of quantum computing - The Conversation AU - August 22nd, 2017
- Finns chill out quantum computers with qubit refrigerator to cut out errors - ZDNet - August 22nd, 2017
- UNSW joins with government and business to keep quantum computing technology in Australia - The Australian Financial Review - August 22nd, 2017
- 'Tools of DESTRUCTION' Quantum computers WILL wreak havoc ... - Express.co.uk - August 19th, 2017
- Quantum computing comes of age - Alphr - August 14th, 2017
- No, Quantum Teleportation Won't Let Us Send Instant Messages to Alpha Centauri - Air & Space Magazine - August 12th, 2017
- Google on track for quantum computer breakthrough by end of ... - August 11th, 2017
- Closing In On Quantum Computing | WIRED - August 11th, 2017
- World's Leading Physicist Says Quantum Computers Are Tools of Destruction, Not Creation - Futurism - August 10th, 2017
- Will you be able to trust a quantum computer? - Digital Journal - August 9th, 2017
- New Methods of Controlling Electrons Could be Major in Quantum Computing - TrendinTech - August 5th, 2017
- Exactly what could quantum computers do? - Electronics Weekly - August 4th, 2017
- What is quantum computing and why does the future of Earth depend on it? - Alphr - August 2nd, 2017
- The Age of Quantum Computers is upon us! - Gizbot - August 2nd, 2017
- Ultracold molecules hold promise for quantum computing | MIT News - MIT News - August 1st, 2017
- Clarifiying complex chemical processes with quantum computers - Phys.Org - August 1st, 2017
- When Will Quantum Computers Be Consumer Products? - Futurism - August 1st, 2017
- Quantum Computers Just Moved a Step Closer to Reality - NBCNews.com - August 1st, 2017
- A New Breakthrough in Quantum Computing is Set to Transform Our ... - Futurism - August 1st, 2017
- Quantum computers compete for supremacy - Salon - July 10th, 2017
- Quantum Computers Compete for "Supremacy" - Scientific American - July 5th, 2017
- Less is more for Canadian quantum computing researchers - ITworld - July 4th, 2017
- New method could enable more stable and scalable quantum ... - Phys.Org - July 4th, 2017
- Volkswagen buys D-Wave quantum computers which sell for $15 million each - Robotics and Automation News (press release) (registration) - July 2nd, 2017
- 6 Things Quantum Computers Will Be Incredibly Useful For - Singularity Hub - July 1st, 2017
- Quantum Machine Learning Computer Hybrids at the Center of New Start-Ups - TrendinTech - June 20th, 2017
- Israel Enters Quantum Computer Race, Placing Encryption at Ever-Greater Risk - Sputnik International - June 20th, 2017
- Prototype device enables photon-photon interactions at room ... - Phys.Org - June 20th, 2017
- The Quantum Computer Factory That's Taking on Google and IBM - WIRED - June 20th, 2017
- Toward optical quantum computing - MIT News - June 17th, 2017
- Get ahead in quantum computing AND attract Goldman Sachs - eFinancialCareers - June 16th, 2017
- KPN CISO details Quantum computing attack dangers - Mobile World Live - June 16th, 2017
- Quantum Computing Technologies markets will reach $10.7 billion by 2024 - PR Newswire (press release) - June 14th, 2017
- From the Abacus to Supercomputers to Quantum Computers - Duke Today - June 13th, 2017
- Quantum Computers Will Analyze Every Financial Model at Once - Singularity Hub - June 13th, 2017
- Are Enterprises Ready to Take a Quantum Leap? - IT Business Edge - June 13th, 2017
- Scientists May Have Found a Way to Combat Quantum Computer Blockchain Hacking - Futurism - June 13th, 2017
- Microsoft and Purdue work on scalable topological quantum computer - Next Big Future - June 13th, 2017
- Doped Diamonds Push Practical Quantum Computing Closer to Reality - Motherboard - June 3rd, 2017
- Team develops first blockchain that can't be hacked by quantum computer - Siliconrepublic.com - June 3rd, 2017
- D-Wave partners with U of T to move quantum computing along - Financial Post - June 2nd, 2017
- Telstra just wants a quantum computer to offer as-a-service - ZDNet - June 1st, 2017
- Microsoft, Purdue Tackle Topological Quantum Computer - HPCwire - HPCwire (blog) - June 1st, 2017
- MIT Just Unveiled A Technique to Mass Produce Quantum Computers - Futurism - June 1st, 2017
- Here's How We Can Achieve Mass-Produced Quantum Computers - ScienceAlert - June 1st, 2017
- Research collaborative pursues advanced quantum computing - Phys.Org - June 1st, 2017
- AI and Quantum Computers Are Our Best Weapons Against Cyber Criminals - Futurism - June 1st, 2017
- Scientists claim to have invented the world's first quantum-proof ... - ScienceAlert - June 1st, 2017
- Google Plans to Demonstrate the Supremacy of Quantum ... - IEEE Spectrum - May 25th, 2017
- Top 5: Things to know about quantum computers - TechRepublic - May 25th, 2017
- Is the US falling behind in the race for quantum computing? - AroundtheO - May 25th, 2017
- Artificial intelligence and quantum computing aid cyber crime fight - Financial Times - May 25th, 2017