An international team of researchers has fashioned a device from nanowires that may finally prove the existence oflong-theorized quasiparticles known asMajorana particles. Once these Majorana particles are identified and isolated, they could form the basis of a quantum bitor qubitthat would process information in a new kind of quantum computer with improvedstability.
Ever since 1937, when the Italian physicist Ettore Majorana first theorized the existence of the quasiparticle that takes his name, there has been much effort to prove that it really exists, withlittle to show for it. But this changed back in 2012, when researchers at Delft University of Technology (TU Delft)in the Netherlandssaw strong hints of Majoranas when they sent electrons into a semiconducting nanowire placed alongside superconducting material.
Since that 2012 Delft research, there have been a number of experiments that have reported evidence of Majoranas in a similar system. However, all of those experiments, including the original one at Delft, left open the possibility of alternative explanations for the results. So, unilnow, there has been no smoking-gun evidence of Majoranas, saidHao Zhang, a post-doc at TU Delft, in an e-mail interview with IEEE Spectrum.
There remained one definitive way to prove the existence of these Majorana particles and that was for them to exchange places along the nanowire, a phenomenon referred to as exchanging statistics of the particles. These statistics describe how the quantum mechanics of the system changewhen two indistinguishable particles switch places.
This exchange of places along the nanowire is also called braiding. These braids form the logic gates of topological quantum computers. However, no one could see how this braiding was possible because the act of getting the particles to pass each other in this nanowire would annihilate them.
If this braiding of these quasiparticles could somehow be artificially induced, researchers theorized,it would result in a far more stable method for quantum computing than employing trapped quantum particles. Thats because the systemwouldnt be susceptible to outside influences like thermal fluctuations.
In research described in the journal Nature, the researchers, from TU Delft, Eindhoven University of Technology in the Netherlands, and the University of California,Santa Barbara, created a hashtag-like device made from nanowires. It provided a four-way intersection in which two Majorana particles could exchange places in the nanowire-based structure without coming in contact with each other and annihilating each other.
These braiding experiments can give experimental results, which are unique to Majoranas, and cannot be mimicked by other alternative scenarios, says Zhang. Thus it can be treated as the smoking-gun evidence.
Braiding not only provides definitive evidence of Majoranas, but perhaps more importantly, it also proves the feasibility of topological quantum computing in which the fundamental assumption of their operation is based on the braiding phenomenon. In other words, the braiding not only proves the existence of Majoranas, but also provides the mechanism by which they could serve as the basis of a qubit for a topological quantum computer.
This means that the quantum information (qubit) can be stored and manipulated simply by braiding (swapping) of Majoranas. This process of braiding is supposed to be robust against error since the outcome only depends on the order of braiding operations, adds Zhang.
In the video below, you can see a description of how the Majoranas are formed from the combining of semiconductor nanowires with a superconductor material, and how once formed can be manipulated into serving as qubits in a topological quantum computer.
This robustness against error depends on Majornas ability to maintain superposition. In previous quantum computing proposals, the unpaired electrons of certain ions can assume either of two spin states, up or downor in terms of digital logic, 0 or 1. When these ions are hit with a microwave pulse, the unpaired electron can take on both the 0 and 1 state simultaneously. These two states constitute what is termed superposition.
Unil now, it has only been possible to maintain a superposition state for very short periods of time because the spin states of neighboring atoms quickly destroy the coherent state.This makesthe life of the qubit too short for it to perform the desired number of quantum computations.
This is the biggest advantage of Majorana qubit compared to other qubits, says Zhang. The Majorana qubit should have longer coherence time (robust against error) due to its topological protection.
Zhang says that they are already working on the engineering of a qubit based on these Majoranas that will involve the fabrication of a microwave pulse circuit.
See the original post here:
Elusive Majorana Particle Takes Major Step Towards Quantum Computing – IEEE Spectrum
- Were Close to a Universal Quantum Computer, Heres Where We're At - November 28th, 2018
- Schrdinger's Killer App: Race to Build the World's First ... - August 7th, 2018
- How Quantum Computers Work - May 3rd, 2018
- This is what a 50-qubit quantum computer looks like - January 15th, 2018
- Inside Microsofts quantum computing world | InfoWorld - January 1st, 2018
- Microsoft Takes Path Less Traveled to Build a Quantum ... - December 13th, 2017
- Researchers create new type of quantum computer | Harvard Gazette - December 12th, 2017
- Microsoft releases quantum computing development kit preview ... - December 12th, 2017
- Intel moves towards production quantum computing with new 17 ... - October 11th, 2017
- Quantum computer a possibility in 10 years - News.com.au - NEWS.com.au - September 7th, 2017
- Scientists Propose a New Kind of Quantum Computer, But What ... - Gizmodo - September 7th, 2017
- Quantum detectives in the hunt for the world's first quantum computer - Phys.Org - September 7th, 2017
- Scientists Just Found A Use For The Hashtag In Quantum Computing - Gizmodo Australia - September 4th, 2017
- The Future of AI: From Quantum Computing to the Internet of Things - Outer Places - September 4th, 2017
- We're About to Cross The 'Quantum Supremacy' Limit in Computing - ScienceAlert - September 2nd, 2017
- Explaining the Most Recent Record for Quantum Computing: A 51-Qubit Quantum Computer Array - All About Circuits - September 2nd, 2017
- USRA Upgrades D-Wave Quantum Computer to 2000 Qubits - insideHPC - September 1st, 2017
- Quantum encrypted box hints at unhackable communication - Wired.co.uk - September 1st, 2017
- Quantum Computer Programming: What You Need to Learn to Get ... - TrendinTech - September 1st, 2017
- Google's John Martinis Believes Quantum Computing Threat to Be Long Way Off - Bitcoin News (press release) - August 31st, 2017
- Australian quantum computing outfit goes commercial - Networks Asia - August 31st, 2017
- Australia gets quantum computing company - ACS (registration) - August 28th, 2017
- Quantum Computing and Financial Trading - LeapRate - August 28th, 2017
- Russians Lead the Quantum Computer Race With 51-Qubit Machine - Edgy Labs (blog) - August 28th, 2017
- Bitcoin vs. The NSAs Quantum Computer Bitcoin Not Bombs - August 26th, 2017
- qBitcoin: A Way of Making Bitcoin Quantum-Computer Proof? - IEEE Spectrum - August 26th, 2017
- Hype and cash are muddying public understanding of quantum ... - Phys.Org - August 26th, 2017
- Silicon Quantum Computing launched to commercialise UNSW ... - ZDNet - August 23rd, 2017
- IEEE Approves Standards Project for Quantum Computing ... - Business Wire (press release) - August 23rd, 2017
- Introducing Australia's first quantum computing hardware company - CIO Australia - August 23rd, 2017
- What is quantum computer? - Definition from WhatIs.com - August 22nd, 2017
- Hype and cash are muddying public understanding of quantum computing - The Conversation AU - August 22nd, 2017
- Finns chill out quantum computers with qubit refrigerator to cut out errors - ZDNet - August 22nd, 2017
- UNSW joins with government and business to keep quantum computing technology in Australia - The Australian Financial Review - August 22nd, 2017
- 'Tools of DESTRUCTION' Quantum computers WILL wreak havoc ... - Express.co.uk - August 19th, 2017
- Quantum computing comes of age - Alphr - August 14th, 2017
- No, Quantum Teleportation Won't Let Us Send Instant Messages to Alpha Centauri - Air & Space Magazine - August 12th, 2017
- Google on track for quantum computer breakthrough by end of ... - August 11th, 2017
- Closing In On Quantum Computing | WIRED - August 11th, 2017
- World's Leading Physicist Says Quantum Computers Are Tools of Destruction, Not Creation - Futurism - August 10th, 2017
- Will you be able to trust a quantum computer? - Digital Journal - August 9th, 2017
- New Methods of Controlling Electrons Could be Major in Quantum Computing - TrendinTech - August 5th, 2017
- Exactly what could quantum computers do? - Electronics Weekly - August 4th, 2017
- What is quantum computing and why does the future of Earth depend on it? - Alphr - August 2nd, 2017
- The Age of Quantum Computers is upon us! - Gizbot - August 2nd, 2017
- Ultracold molecules hold promise for quantum computing | MIT News - MIT News - August 1st, 2017
- Clarifiying complex chemical processes with quantum computers - Phys.Org - August 1st, 2017
- When Will Quantum Computers Be Consumer Products? - Futurism - August 1st, 2017
- Quantum Computers Just Moved a Step Closer to Reality - NBCNews.com - August 1st, 2017
- A New Breakthrough in Quantum Computing is Set to Transform Our ... - Futurism - August 1st, 2017
- Quantum computers compete for supremacy - Salon - July 10th, 2017
- Quantum Computers Compete for "Supremacy" - Scientific American - July 5th, 2017
- Less is more for Canadian quantum computing researchers - ITworld - July 4th, 2017
- New method could enable more stable and scalable quantum ... - Phys.Org - July 4th, 2017
- Volkswagen buys D-Wave quantum computers which sell for $15 million each - Robotics and Automation News (press release) (registration) - July 2nd, 2017
- 6 Things Quantum Computers Will Be Incredibly Useful For - Singularity Hub - July 1st, 2017
- Quantum Machine Learning Computer Hybrids at the Center of New Start-Ups - TrendinTech - June 20th, 2017
- Israel Enters Quantum Computer Race, Placing Encryption at Ever-Greater Risk - Sputnik International - June 20th, 2017
- Prototype device enables photon-photon interactions at room ... - Phys.Org - June 20th, 2017
- The Quantum Computer Factory That's Taking on Google and IBM - WIRED - June 20th, 2017
- Toward optical quantum computing - MIT News - June 17th, 2017
- Get ahead in quantum computing AND attract Goldman Sachs - eFinancialCareers - June 16th, 2017
- KPN CISO details Quantum computing attack dangers - Mobile World Live - June 16th, 2017
- Quantum Computing Technologies markets will reach $10.7 billion by 2024 - PR Newswire (press release) - June 14th, 2017
- From the Abacus to Supercomputers to Quantum Computers - Duke Today - June 13th, 2017
- Quantum Computers Will Analyze Every Financial Model at Once - Singularity Hub - June 13th, 2017
- Are Enterprises Ready to Take a Quantum Leap? - IT Business Edge - June 13th, 2017
- Scientists May Have Found a Way to Combat Quantum Computer Blockchain Hacking - Futurism - June 13th, 2017
- Microsoft and Purdue work on scalable topological quantum computer - Next Big Future - June 13th, 2017
- Doped Diamonds Push Practical Quantum Computing Closer to Reality - Motherboard - June 3rd, 2017
- Team develops first blockchain that can't be hacked by quantum computer - Siliconrepublic.com - June 3rd, 2017
- D-Wave partners with U of T to move quantum computing along - Financial Post - June 2nd, 2017
- Telstra just wants a quantum computer to offer as-a-service - ZDNet - June 1st, 2017
- Microsoft, Purdue Tackle Topological Quantum Computer - HPCwire - HPCwire (blog) - June 1st, 2017
- MIT Just Unveiled A Technique to Mass Produce Quantum Computers - Futurism - June 1st, 2017
- Here's How We Can Achieve Mass-Produced Quantum Computers - ScienceAlert - June 1st, 2017
- Research collaborative pursues advanced quantum computing - Phys.Org - June 1st, 2017
- AI and Quantum Computers Are Our Best Weapons Against Cyber Criminals - Futurism - June 1st, 2017
- Scientists claim to have invented the world's first quantum-proof ... - ScienceAlert - June 1st, 2017
- Google Plans to Demonstrate the Supremacy of Quantum ... - IEEE Spectrum - May 25th, 2017