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Electroneum. The Mobile Cryptocurrency.

Step 1: Finding the users

Electroneum aims for 10s or even 100s of millions of users and has a clearly defined route to market.

We have signed agreements in place giving access to over 100m smartphone users via mobile operators (the companies that provide airtime and data to your smartphone).

Electroneum is also the first cryptocurrency to secure membership of the GSMA as part of our strategy to expand via this sector.

The viral appeal of Electroneum is immense. When a user downloads the Electroneum app they can experience mining their first Electroneum coins straight into their wallet in minutes. By allowing users to earn a handful of ETN coins per month for just being part of the Electroneum community, we can quickly grow Electroneum to be the largest used cryptocurrency in the world.

The key to mass adoption is to not just ensure people can access your currency. You must ensure the currency has utility.

Once users have Electroneum in their wallets they will start to want to experience spending cryptocurrency for the first time. Thats where the second benefit of our partnerships with mobile operators makes all the difference.

Our partners have agreed to begin the process of accepting Electroneum as payment from their customers. We are currently in negotiation with some enormous global brands who have expressed strong interest in adding Electroneum digital payments to the list of ways to pay.

We already have signed agreements in place to develop Electroneum payment integration for over 1.2 million agents, dealers and distributors in over 9 countries and have many more in negotiation.

As with all disruptive technology, the markets entrepreneurial spirit will find ways to accept and use Electroneum as our numbers of users grow into the 10s of millions.

By making our currency available to millions of people, and allowing those people to spend our currency, were poised to take cryptocurrency further than it has ever been.

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File-Based Encryption | Android Open Source Project

Android 7.0 and later supports file-based encryption (FBE). File-basedencryption allows different files to be encrypted with different keys that canbe unlocked independently.

This article describes how to enable file-based encryption on new devicesand how system applications can be updated to take full advantage of the newDirect Boot APIs and offer users the best, most secure experience possible.

Warning: File-based encryption cannotcurrently be used together with adoptable storage. On devices usingfile-based encryption, new storage media (such as an SD card) must be used astraditional storage.

File-based encryption enables a new feature introduced in Android 7.0 called DirectBoot. Direct Boot allows encrypted devices to boot straight to the lockscreen. Previously, on encrypted devices using full-diskencryption (FDE), users needed to provide credentials before any data couldbe accessed, preventing the phone from performing all but the most basic ofoperations. For example, alarms could not operate, accessibility services wereunavailable, and phones could not receive calls but were limited to only basicemergency dialer operations.

With the introduction of file-based encryption (FBE) and new APIs to makeapplications aware of encryption, it is possible for these apps to operatewithin a limited context. This can happen before users have provided theircredentials while still protecting private user information.

On an FBE-enabled device, each user of the device has two storage locationsavailable to applications:

This separation makes work profiles more secure because it allows more than oneuser to be protected at a time as the encryption is no longer based solely on aboot time password.

The Direct Boot API allows encryption-aware applications to access each of theseareas. There are changes to the application lifecycle to accommodate the need tonotify applications when a users CE storage is unlocked in response tofirst entering credentials at the lock screen, or in the case of work profileproviding aworkchallenge. Devices running Android 7.0 must support these new APIs andlifecycles regardless of whether or not they implement FBE. Although, withoutFBE, DE and CE storage will always be in the unlocked state.

A complete implementation of file-based encryption on an Ext4 file system isprovided in the Android Open Source Project (AOSP) and needs only be enabled ondevices that meet the requirements. Manufacturers electing to use FBE may wishto explore ways of optimizing the feature based on the system on chip (SoC)used.

All the necessary packages in AOSP have been updated to be direct-boot aware.However, where device manufacturers use customized versions of these apps, theywill want to ensure at a minimum there are direct-boot aware packages providingthe following services:

Android provides a reference implementation of file-based encryption, in whichvold (system/vold)provides the functionality for managing storage devices andvolumes on Android. The addition of FBE provides vold with several new commandsto support key management for the CE and DE keys of multiple users. In additionto the core changes to use the ext4 Encryptioncapabilities in kernel many system packages including the lockscreen and theSystemUI have been modified to support the FBE and Direct Boot features. Theseinclude:

* System applications that use the defaultToDeviceProtectedStoragemanifest attribute

More examples of applications and services that are encryption aware can befound by running the command mangrep directBootAware in theframeworks or packages directory of the AOSPsource tree.

To use the AOSP implementation of FBE securely, a device needs to meet thefollowing dependencies:

Note: Storage policies are applied to a folder and all of itssubfolders. Manufacturers should limit the contents that go unencrypted to theOTA folder and the folder that holds the key that decrypts the system. Mostcontents should reside in credential-encrypted storage rather thandevice-encrypted storage.

First and foremost, apps such as alarm clocks, phone, accessibility featuresshould be made android:directBootAware according to DirectBoot developer documentation.

The AOSP implementation of file-based encryption uses the ext4 encryptionfeatures in the Linux 4.4 kernel. The recommended solution is to use a kernelbased on 4.4 or later. Ext4 encryption has also been backported to a 3.10 kernelin the Android common repositories and for the supported Nexus kernels.

The android-3.10.y branch in the AOSP kernel/common git repository mayprovide a good starting point for device manufacturers that want to import thiscapability into their own device kernels. However, it is necessary to applythe most recent patches from the latest stable Linux kernel (currently linux-4.6)of the ext4 and jbd2 projects. The Nexus device kernels already include many ofthese patches.

Note that each of these kernels uses a backport to 3.10. The ext4and jbd2 drivers from linux 3.18 were transplanted into existing kernels basedon 3.10. Due to interdependencies between parts of the kernel, this backportbreaks support for a number of features that are not used by Nexus devices.These include:

In addition to functional support for ext4 encryption, device manufacturers mayalso consider implementing cryptographic acceleration to speed up file-basedencryption and improve the user experience.

FBE is enabled by adding the flagfileencryption=contents_encryption_mode[:filenames_encryption_mode]to the fstab line in the final column for the userdatapartition. contents_encryption_mode parameter defines whichcryptographic algorithm is used for the encryption of file contents andfilenames_encryption_mode for the encryption of filenames.contents_encryption_mode can be only aes-256-xts.filenames_encryption_mode has two possible values: aes-256-ctsand aes-256-heh. If filenames_encryption_mode is not specifiedthen aes-256-cts value is used.

Whilst testing the FBE implementation on a device, it is possible to specify thefollowing flag:forcefdeorfbe=”

This sets the device up with FDE but allows conversion to FBE for developers. Bydefault, this behaves like forceencrypt, putting the device intoFDE mode. However, it will expose a debug option allowing a device to be putinto FBE mode as is the case in the developer preview. It is also possible toenable FBE from fastboot using this command:

This is intended solely for development purposes as a platform for demonstratingthe feature before actual FBE devices are released. This flag may be deprecatedin the future.

The generation of keys and management of the kernel keyring is handled byvold. The AOSP implementation of FBE requires that the devicesupport Keymaster HAL version 1.0 or later. There is no support for earlierversions of the Keymaster HAL.

On first boot, user 0s keys are generated and installed early in the bootprocess. By the time the on-post-fs phase of initcompletes, the Keymaster must be ready to handle requests. On Nexus devices,this is handled by having a script block:

Note: All encryption is based on AES-256 inXTS mode. Due to the way XTS is defined, it needs two 256-bit keys; so ineffect, both CE and DE keys are 512-bit keys.

Ext4 encryption applies the encryption policy at the directory level. When adevices userdata partition is first created, the basic structuresand policies are applied by the init scripts. These scripts willtrigger the creation of the first users (user 0s) CE and DE keys as well asdefine which directories are to be encrypted with these keys. When additionalusers and profiles are created, the necessary additional keys are generated andstored in the keystore; their credential and devices storage locations arecreated and the encryption policy links these keys to those directories.

In the current AOSP implementation, the encryption policy is hardcoded into thislocation:

It is possible to add exceptions in this file to prevent certain directoriesfrom being encrypted at all, by adding to the directories_to_excludelist. If modifications of this sort are made then the devicemanufacturer should include SELinux policies that only grant access to theapplications that need to use the unencrypted directory. This should exclude alluntrusted applications.

The only known acceptable use case for this is in support of legacy OTAcapabilities.

To facilitate rapid migration of system apps, there are two new attributes thatcan be set at the application level. ThedefaultToDeviceProtectedStorage attribute is available only tosystem apps. The directBootAware attribute is available to all.

The directBootAware attribute at the application level is shorthand for markingall components in the app as being encryption aware.

The defaultToDeviceProtectedStorage attribute redirects the defaultapp storage location to point at DE storage instead of pointing at CE storage.System apps using this flag must carefully audit all data stored in the defaultlocation, and change the paths of sensitive data to use CE storage. Devicemanufactures using this option should carefully inspect the data that they arestoring to ensure that it contains no personal information.

When running in this mode, the following System APIs areavailable to explicitly manage a Context backed by CE storage when needed, whichare equivalent to their Device Protected counterparts.

Each user in a multi-user environment gets a separate encryption key. Every usergets two keys: a DE and a CE key. User 0 must log into the device first as it isa special user. This is pertinent for DeviceAdministration uses.

Crypto-aware applications interact across users in this manner:INTERACT_ACROSS_USERS and INTERACT_ACROSS_USERS_FULLallow an application to act across all the users on the device. However, thoseapps will be able to access only CE-encrypted directories for users that arealready unlocked.

An application may be able to interact freely across the DE areas, but one userunlocked does not mean that all the users on the device are unlocked. Theapplication should check this status before trying to access these areas.

Each work profile user ID also gets two keys: DE and CE. When the work challengeis met, the profile user is unlocked and the Keymaster (in TEE) can provide theprofiles TEE key.

The recovery partition is unable to access the DE-protected storage on theuserdata partition. Devices implementing FBE are strongly recommended to supportOTA using A/B system updates. Asthe OTA can be applied during normal operation there is no need for recovery toaccess data on the encrypted drive.

When using a legacy OTA solution, which requires recovery to access the OTA fileon the userdata partition:

To ensure the implemented version of the feature works as intended, employ themany CTS encryption tests.

Once the kernel builds for your board, also build for x86 and run under QEMU inorder to test with xfstest by using:

In addition, device manufacturers may perform these manual tests. On a devicewith FBE enabled:

Additionally, testers can boot a userdebug instance with a lockscreen set on theprimary user. Then adb shell into the device and usesu to become root. Make sure /data/data containsencrypted filenames; if it does not, something is wrong.

This section provides details on the AOSP implementation and describes howfile-based encryption works. It should not be necessary for device manufacturersto make any changes here to use FBE and Direct Boot on their devices.

The AOSP implementation uses ext4 encryption in kernel and is configured to:

Disk encryption keys, which are 512-bit AES-XTS keys, are stored encryptedby another key (a 256-bit AES-GCM key) held in the TEE. To use this TEE key,three requirements must be met:

The auth token is a cryptographically authenticated token generated byGatekeeperwhen a user successfully logs in. The TEE will refuse to use the key unless thecorrect auth token is supplied. If the user has no credential, then no authtoken is used nor needed.

The stretched credential is the user credential after salting andstretching with the scrypt algorithm. The credential is actuallyhashed once in the lock settings service before being passed tovold for passing to scrypt. This is cryptographicallybound to the key in the TEE with all the guarantees that apply toKM_TAG_APPLICATION_ID. If the user has no credential, then nostretched credential is used nor needed.

The secdiscardable hash is a 512-bit hash of a random 16 KB filestored alongside other information used to reconstruct the key, such as theseed. This file is securely deleted when the key is deleted, or it is encryptedin a new way; this added protection ensures an attacker must recover every bitof this securely deleted file to recover the key. This is cryptographicallybound to the key in the TEE with all the guarantees that apply toKM_TAG_APPLICATION_ID. See the KeystoreImplementer’s Reference.

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What is quantum computing? – Definition from WhatIs.com

Quantum computing is the area of study focused on developing computer technology based on the principles of quantum theory, which explains the nature and behavior of energy and matter on the quantum (atomic and subatomic) level. Development of a quantum computer, if practical, would mark a leap forward in computing capability far greater than that from the abacus to a modern day supercomputer, with performance gains in the billion-fold realm and beyond. The quantum computer, following the laws of quantum physics, would gain enormous processing power through the ability to be in multiple states, and to perform tasks using all possible permutations simultaneously. Current centers of research in quantum computing include MIT, IBM, Oxford University, and the Los Alamos National Laboratory.

The essential elements of quantum computing originated with Paul Benioff, working at Argonne National Labs, in 1981. He theorized a classical computer operating with some quantum mechanical principles. But it is generally accepted that David Deutsch of Oxford University provided the critical impetus for quantum computing research. In 1984, he was at a computation theory conference and began to wonder about the possibility of designing a computer that was based exclusively on quantum rules, then published his breakthrough paper a few months later. With this, the race began to exploit his ideas. However, before we delve into what he started, it is beneficial to have a look at the background of the quantum world.

Quantum theory’s development began in 1900 with a presentation by Max Planck to the German Physical Society, in which he introduced the idea that energy exists in individual units (which he called “quanta”), as does matter. Further developments by a number of scientists over the following thirty years led to the modern understanding of quantum theory.

Niels Bohr proposed the Copenhagen interpretation of quantum theory, which asserts that a particle is whatever it is measured to be (for example, a wave or a particle) but that it cannot be assumed to have specific properties, or even to exist, until it is measured. In short, Bohr was saying that objective reality does not exist. This translates to a principle called superposition that claims that while we do not know what the state of any object is, it is actually in all possible states simultaneously, as long as we don’t look to check.

To illustrate this theory, we can use the famous and somewhat cruel analogy of Schrodinger’s Cat. First, we have a living cat and place it in a thick lead box. At this stage, there is no question that the cat is alive. We then throw in a vial of cyanide and seal the box. We do not know if the cat is alive or if it has broken the cyanide capsule and died. Since we do not know, the cat is both dead and alive, according to quantum law – in a superposition of states. It is only when we break open the box and see what condition the cat is in that the superposition is lost, and the cat must be either alive or dead.

The second interpretation of quantum theory is the multiverse or many-worlds theory. It holds that as soon as a potential exists for any object to be in any state, the universe of that object transmutes into a series of parallel universes equal to the number of possible states in which that the object can exist, with each universe containing a unique single possible state of that object. Furthermore, there is a mechanism for interaction between these universes that somehow permits all states to be accessible in some way and for all possible states to be affected in some manner. Stephen Hawking and the late Richard Feynman are among the scientists who have expressed a preference for the many-worlds theory.

Which ever argument one chooses, the principle that, in some way, one particle can exist in numerous states opens up profound implications for computing.

Classical computing relies, at its ultimate level, on principles expressed by Boolean algebra, operating with a (usually) 7-mode logic gate principle, though it is possible to exist with only three modes (which are AND, NOT, and COPY). Data must be processed in an exclusive binary state at any point in time – that is, either 0 (off / false) or 1 (on / true). These values are binary digits, or bits. The millions of transistors and capacitors at the heart of computers can only be in one state at any point. While the time that the each transistor or capacitor need be either in 0 or 1 before switching states is now measurable in billionths of a second, there is still a limit as to how quickly these devices can be made to switch state. As we progress to smaller and faster circuits, we begin to reach the physical limits of materials and the threshold for classical laws of physics to apply. Beyond this, the quantum world takes over, which opens a potential as great as the challenges that are presented.

The Quantum computer, by contrast, can work with a two-mode logic gate: XOR and a mode we’ll call QO1 (the ability to change 0 into a superposition of 0 and 1, a logic gate which cannot exist in classical computing). In a quantum computer, a number of elemental particles such as electrons or photons can be used (in practice, success has also been achieved with ions), with either their charge or polarization acting as a representation of 0 and/or 1. Each of these particles is known as a quantum bit, or qubit, the nature and behavior of these particles form the basis of quantum computing. The two most relevant aspects of quantum physics are the principles of superposition and entanglement .

Think of a qubit as an electron in a magnetic field. The electron’s spin may be either in alignment with the field, which is known as a spin-up state, or opposite to the field, which is known as a spin-down state. Changing the electron’s spin from one state to another is achieved by using a pulse of energy, such as from a laser – let’s say that we use 1 unit of laser energy. But what if we only use half a unit of laser energy and completely isolate the particle from all external influences? According to quantum law, the particle then enters a superposition of states, in which it behaves as if it were in both states simultaneously. Each qubit utilized could take a superposition of both 0 and 1. Thus, the number of computations that a quantum computer could undertake is 2^n, where n is the number of qubits used. A quantum computer comprised of 500 qubits would have a potential to do 2^500 calculations in a single step. This is an awesome number – 2^500 is infinitely more atoms than there are in the known universe (this is true parallel processing – classical computers today, even so called parallel processors, still only truly do one thing at a time: there are just two or more of them doing it). But how will these particles interact with each other? They would do so via quantum entanglement.

Entanglement Particles (such as photons, electrons, or qubits) that have interacted at some point retain a type of connection and can be entangled with each other in pairs, in a process known as correlation . Knowing the spin state of one entangled particle – up or down – allows one to know that the spin of its mate is in the opposite direction. Even more amazing is the knowledge that, due to the phenomenon of superpostition, the measured particle has no single spin direction before being measured, but is simultaneously in both a spin-up and spin-down state. The spin state of the particle being measured is decided at the time of measurement and communicated to the correlated particle, which simultaneously assumes the opposite spin direction to that of the measured particle. This is a real phenomenon (Einstein called it “spooky action at a distance”), the mechanism of which cannot, as yet, be explained by any theory – it simply must be taken as given. Quantum entanglement allows qubits that are separated by incredible distances to interact with each other instantaneously (not limited to the speed of light). No matter how great the distance between the correlated particles, they will remain entangled as long as they are isolated.

Taken together, quantum superposition and entanglement create an enormously enhanced computing power. Where a 2-bit register in an ordinary computer can store only one of four binary configurations (00, 01, 10, or 11) at any given time, a 2-qubit register in a quantum computer can store all four numbers simultaneously, because each qubit represents two values. If more qubits are added, the increased capacity is expanded exponentially.

Perhaps even more intriguing than the sheer power of quantum computing is the ability that it offers to write programs in a completely new way. For example, a quantum computer could incorporate a programming sequence that would be along the lines of “take all the superpositions of all the prior computations” – something which is meaningless with a classical computer – which would permit extremely fast ways of solving certain mathematical problems, such as factorization of large numbers, one example of which we discuss below.

There have been two notable successes thus far with quantum programming. The first occurred in 1994 by Peter Shor, (now at AT&T Labs) who developed a quantum algorithm that could efficiently factorize large numbers. It centers on a system that uses number theory to estimate the periodicity of a large number sequence. The other major breakthrough happened with Lov Grover of Bell Labs in 1996, with a very fast algorithm that is proven to be the fastest possible for searching through unstructured databases. The algorithm is so efficient that it requires only, on average, roughly N square root (where N is the total number of elements) searches to find the desired result, as opposed to a search in classical computing, which on average needs N/2 searches.

The above sounds promising, but there are tremendous obstacles still to be overcome. Some of the problems with quantum computing are as follows:

Even though there are many problems to overcome, the breakthroughs in the last 15 years, and especially in the last 3, have made some form of practical quantum computing not unfeasible, but there is much debate as to whether this is less than a decade away or a hundred years into the future. However, the potential that this technology offers is attracting tremendous interest from both the government and the private sector. Military applications include the ability to break encryptions keys via brute force searches, while civilian applications range from DNA modeling to complex material science analysis. It is this potential that is rapidly breaking down the barriers to this technology, but whether all barriers can be broken, and when, is very much an open question.

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Cryptocurrencies trading | your guide in the world of trading …

CryptoCurrencies TradingCryptocurrencies is the Big thing at the moment.

It will be hard to not have heard about Bitcoin, Litecoin and Ethereum. The markets of these cryptocoins have gone through the roof and those that were early to get in are reaping now the fruits.But in order for you to do the same you need a little bit more information

Cryptography has everything to do with coding to keep data secure. This term is not something new. The cryptocurrency is a virtual or better said digital asset that utilizes cryptography as its security measure. That makes it thus saver and makes it very hard to impossible counterfeit unlike regular bills and coins.

and the most known of the first cryptocurrencies that were launched and opened the way for Crypto Currencies Trading on other cryptocoins. It was launched in 2009 by Satoshi Nakamoto, a pseudonym that could be a person or a group , there has been some debate about this and every now and then this story pops back up.

The system was open source and peer to peer. The most important aspect of this is that theres no central agency (like the government) that regulates or issues these cryptocurrencies or CryptoCurrencies Trading in general

The same fact made it also somewhat perfect for the business that were trying to keep their delaing off the books and unknown to the goverments and banks.

The difference being that cryptocurrencies have ICOs, initial coin offerings, and any entity or group is able to launch it as an investment, while regular companies have IPOs, or initial public offerings.

The Atlantic lays bare the actual problem with not having a central authority regulating these currencies. Because there are no checks and balances the way there are with IPOs, there are many scammers out there looking for fast cash. So, This brings me to the points that if you plan to invest in a cryptocoin and want to do some cryptocurrency Trading you better make sure that it is a save and sound currency with a good reputation.

What about for example CryptoCurrencies Trading in Bitcoin or Ethereum? . Are they smart investments? Since both are very popular, and areactually used as currency.

Some are, some might be and some are not.

Not the answer you were looking for ? look at it from this way

While there are people that state that investing in general is just gambling this is not really the case. Investment that are long-term. And broad investments are very different from active trading and more speculative investment, in the short term format it can go either way , like forex or retail commodity trading and cryptocurrencies trading falls into that category.

With active short term trading, you are predicting in a short term what the coin will do. This has been for many an amazing income when it comes to bitcoin , but keep in mind where there are winners there losers.

Since the prices go up and down so fast as in forex , you are able to buy bitcoin and lose money , there is no sure thing .

the price of these cryptocurrencies often swings from one extreme to another. For example inone day in June, the price of Ethereum plummeted from $US319 to $US0.1o.

This does not mean that you have to run now as the price recovered and then some. It just means that you have to be aware of the market like any day trading requires. This is not like buying Bitcoin forgetting about it and then just cash in and buy a car. You have to educate yourself, find the right broker and watch the markets and news for developments.

But as a price goes down it also can go up tremendously. This creates thou the fear of a bubble which will make the price eventually crash. People that cashed out before a crash are the lucky or well, educated ones and make enormous amounts of money.

So be aware of the risks but if you were not interested you would not be reading this. There sis money to be made in cryptocurrency trading.

That was my little moment of doom , now lets looks how it actually works

All cryptocurrencies follow the same general system.

It starts by a cryptocurrency choosing a base unit and how much that particular unit is worth when compared to other currencies (often, the U.S. dollar is used as a baseline).this would be the ICOs.

Here everyone goes about it a bit different and this often will already indicate what kind and how success full the crypto coin will be.

Keep in mind that there are sometimes very smart people behind it that try to push the envelope of what is done till that moment but in the end, the unitin one way or another relates to the value of other established currency, which is the format all currencies are following

Units of the new cryptocurrency are then created. When a transaction is made the units are carefully formed and preserved through algorithmic encryption, then linked together in enormous chains of data (term is blockchains) , where the currency can be tracked and exchanged.

This is not enough thou, as this is not secure enough it needs more information to keep it save. The currency units need to be timestamped and properly processed to make them more stable and harder to copy.

This can be done by a third party developer, but today most of the cryptocurrencies rather crowdsource the process to those with the correct hardware and software to mine the cryptocurrency.

This in essentially verifies the transaction and build its position online. This entire process is most of the times called the consensus protocols, there are some variations of this due to other currencies.

This it will make the currency very hard to duplicate and this forger it. Some say that it can be done but in general a good crypto currency has this part covered as it would be in most cases be simpler to just print fake bills.

Since the coins are only digital ( regardless of the nice bitcoin pictures ) there are some serious implications.

When last checked there are more than a thousand different cryptocurrencies and more are popping up every month.

Some of these are to be taken very serious and those in general are the ones we are looking at when talking about cryptocurrencies trading in general.

Others are more for fun experiments or for other reasons (that you have to ask those developers).

Besides Bitcoin (who remains the big leader of the pack) there are a few crypto currencies out there that you should take notice of if you are interested in cryptocurrencies trading online. I can mention them all but that would not really help you.

The main ones that I expect to become larger stronger and more mainstream or already are those things are, the litecoin, Dash, Ripple and last but not least Ethereum.

Since many of the uses are still in the shadow it is perceived as a way to stay under the radar for less kosher deals, it needs to become a legit means of payment for everyday life and business to succeed.

Japan makes waves in this direction allowing micropayments in supermarkets with some crypto currencies.

2.The pass-through problem.

Investors, that can be even you and me, need to hold onto and invest these currencies long-term if they are going to become a real force.

As long as they are used by companies as well as regular people to switch between other currencies but for the reason to only avoid paying the exchange rates it will not achieve the right reputation, this also reflects back on point one.

3. Continues Stability.

They need to be more save then regular currencies and remain this for a longer period of time. When Ethereum,was hacked which made a damage of around 50 million dollars. It hurt then entire Cryptocurrency world.

The cryptocurrency will have to be fully trusted to see real mainstream use which is currently still not the case. On the other hand, as long as governments keep on printing money whenever they need some regular currencies are not a better option just less volatile in most cases.

The thing is thou that crypto currencies will never go away, it simple cannot be erased or ignored anymore, the banks start to fear as they are losing business and some smart countries like some Scandinavian ones are integrating some cryptocurrencies in their society making it more mainstream and accepted.

In some years to come I expect that we would know any better and the trading would be like trading EUR US is now. That said Cryptocurrencies trading is exciting and with the right education, the right broker and exchange can be very profitable.

Enjoy but be smart careful and educated. Dont trade with funds you cannot spare and follow the markets.

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Beyond Encryption | Secure Enterprise email using existing …

Secure recorded delivery and response

Mailock employs a unique process allowing you to authenticate the identity of your intended recipient before granting them access; only when they have proven their identity to you is access permitted to any of the message content.

We call this ‘Identity Assured Communication’.

But being able to read your secure emails is only half of the story; with Mailock, your customers are also able to reply securely, thus ensuring that conversations containing sensitive details remain protected, secure and private.

We know that it is important to reach your audience so Mailock has been designed to allow just that. Whether your customer reads your secure email in a web browser, on a mobile device or from within their existing desktop email system, we have all the bases covered.

Using a unique light touch registration and challenge process, Mailock allows your customers to authenticate their identity and read your secure email within seconds of receiving it.

Mobile Apps for iPhone and Android and plug-ins for email programs such as Microsoft Outlook and Apple Mail are all freely available for download from the App Stores and our website to create a truly easy to use and integrated user experience.

The storage location and control of confidential customer data is crucial to organisations seeking to meet regulatory requirements. With Mailock, your encrypted email data may be held in data stores owned and managed by you and our unique challenge process allows you to control when this data is released and to whom.

The Mailock system is free to all recipients and consumers of the service are encouraged to link their Mailock identity to both business and personal email addresses. Through return data, this provides a ground-breaking opportunity to assist in the maintenance of your important contact data meaning that you need never lose the ability to stay in touch with your customers again.

At Mailock, we know that regulatory compliance is of paramount importance to your business and its customers and we have designed the system so that it may be readily integrated with your incumbent systems.

Contact us for further details of how this may be achieved with your existing tools and processes.

We all have a duty to reduce our carbon footprint and Mailock offers an unprecedented opportunity to cut cost whilst improving operating efficiencies and reducing emissions.

Every secure Mailock message delivered provides you, the business user, with a targeted marketing message opportunity. Contact us for further details of how Mailock can spread the word for your business and enhance your promotional activities.

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COMODO Internet Security Download – softpedia.com

COMODO Internet Security Premium is an antivirus system that aims to protect your system, files and folders against online threats. It includes an antivirus module, combined with firewall features build an unbreakable shield.

COMODO Internet Security Premium offers to change your DNS servers to COMODO SecureDNS servers (it has a description), and to enable “Cloud Based Behavior Analysis” of unrecognized programs by submitting them to COMODO.

When the program is launched, you are welcomed by three windows. In one of them, COMODO searched for updates, another one informed us of how the firewall had detected a new private network that our PC was about to join, and another one which is the software’s interface.

Updating takes several minutes, after which COMODO runs an automatic scan on your computer (which takes a really long time, but it’s thorough). The GUI is very eye-catching and simple to follow.

COMODO seems to have a lot of features for each main function, but they are well organized. The antivirus section lets you run or schedule a scan (a full scan, on critical areas, or a spyware scan), configure the scanner settings, view antivirus events and quarantined items, but also submit suspicious files to COMODO to be further analyzed.

The firewall lets you view events and alerts that were possibly triggered by attacks on the computer, define a new trusted or blocked application, create a set of global rules, and configure various options.

Defense+ has some interesting features, such as running a program in the Sandbox (a “safe haven” for untrusted, restricted, limited or partially limited applications), adding or removing files to and from your local safe executable database, and viewing unrecognized files (which are automatically placed in the Sandbox until further notice).

Surprisingly enough, COMODO uses very little CPU and memory resources while scanning is active. But other system applications run slower.

To sum things up, COMODO Internet Security Premium is a brilliant security application, but that’s only our opinion. You have to test it for yourself.

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Best Internet Security Software 2018 – The best rated …

More and more sophisticated cyber attacks have rendered antivirus-type security solutions useless. While the majority of antivirus products offer protection against various types of malware, they become pointless in the face of targeted attacks from hackers.

When that happens, Internet Security-type solutions come to save the day. These deliver complete protection from different types of cyber threats, like: spam, hacking, spyware and phishing.

Since they come with many more features than your regular antivirus software, the price of Internet security solutions is usually high. However, if you want to buy something like that, you need to consider its advantages.

Before we reveal the best Internet Security solution of 2018 for Windows 7, 8 and 10, well tell you when to even consider buying this kind of security solution instead of a regular top-rated antivirus.

Choosing antivirus software may be difficult if youre a home user. Why? Because security solutions against viruses are hard to test and compare by a regular user. Especially when the process requires a certain amount of time before reaching clear conclusions. If you are a home user, this post on the best security products might help you.

Heres when youll need an Internet Security solution:

One of the most frequent questions regarding security software applications has to do with the differences between an antivirus and a Security solution solution.

Normally, security software manufacturers create applications in a modular way. Different protection modules are either integrated or not in the suites these manufacturers offer. The rules well talk about arent found universally. Some manufacturers of antivirus solutions prefer to group the protection modules in other ways.

Generally, an antivirus keeps you safe from viruses, files infected with malware and websites affected by different types of viruses. The protection offered by an antivirus can be resumed to the three big types of threats mentioned earlier.

Internet Security software suites come with a series of bonus modules compared to what antiviruses deliver. Here are some of them:

The table below shows a comparative analysis we did between antivirus protection systems and Internet Security ones. The comparison was performed by looking at the most frequent features integrated in these security products. Sometimes, some modules are also to be found in the best antivirus suites, even if our table doesnt show this.

Attention! These modules arent available with every Internet Security solutions out there. They can vary depending on the manufacturer. Make sure to choose the security solution that works best for you when you decide to buy one.

We tested some Internet Security software solutions on different operating systems (Windows XP, Vista, Windows 7, 8 and 10) to answer the following question: Which is the best Internet Security protection suite?

In case you decide to buy or test an Internet Security solution, visit its manufacturers website and check the tables with comparative features. These show every capability each security suite has. We also recommend checking the differences between these manufacturers antivirus software versions and Internet Security versions.

Some of them have antivirus solutions with multiple interesting features. Remember this and dont necessarily rush into buying one Internet Security solution over the other. First, check whether or not the antivirus suites deliver the protection you as a user actually need.

For instance, if you dont have kids, you will never require something with parental control. Should you not have a webcam attached to your PC, the webcam protection options a security solution suite offers are pointless.

Just as in the case of the comparative analysis of antivirus solutions, identifying the best Internet Security suite took quite long. We tested well-known security solutions and the ones created by less known software manufacturers. Security companies have already launched version 2018 of their applications. The latter have already been available ever since the middle of 2017.

To better find the best Internet Security software solutions of 2017 and 2018, we considered the following:

Heres a top of the best 2017 applications after we performed our tests:

Score: 9.9 / 10As soon as we received the results for our tests, it was no surprise that Bitdefender Internet Security 2018 came on our top of the best Internet protection suites. Compared to the Antivirus version (whose detailed review ishere), the new Bitdefender Internet Security suite features new functionalities:

Here are the advantages of the Bitdefender Internet Security 2018: very easy configuration, excellent scanning speed and minimal impact on system resources.

Bitdefender offer the best Internet Security solution we tested. This top rated security suite has an excellent price for its features: only $49.99 for up to 3 devices. You shouldnt miss out on such a good deal.

If you want extended protection against computer theft, the Bitdefender Total Security version is what you need. The new module offers the possibility to remotely access any stolen or lost PC when the latter is connected to the Internet. The application can be found here.

Our rating: 9.9/10

Compatibility:Windows 7 (SP 1), 8, 8.1 and 10

Discount: 20%

Price: $49.99 / 3 devices

Score: 9.8 / 10Number two of our best Internet Security software is something created by Symantec, namely Norton SecurityDeluxe 2018. Here are the bonus features which the Antivirus version doesnt offer:

Some of the advantages of this suite are its excellent stability, great scanning speed and an easy to perform configuration.

Norton Security Deluxe is an excellent choice for users who want to protect their computer and personal data against destruction or intrusion. For only $39.99 for 5 devices (PC / Windows XP, Vista, 7, 8, 8.1 and 10 / Mac), you can be sure your important information is kept safe from every kind of cyber attack.

Our rating: 9.8/10

Compatibility:iOS, Android, Windows XP, Vista, 7, 8, 8.1 and 10

Discount: 50%

Price: $39.99 / 5 devices

Score: 9.7 / 10

Veteran Kaspersky couldnt miss from the top best Internet Security manufacturers. The 2018 version of their security software features a series of improvements compared to the older version. As opposed to the Antivirus version we recently analyzed and tested, the Kaspersky Internet Security comes with the following:

Heres a short list of the advantages offered by the Kaspersky security suite: one of the best anti-malware protection from the market, the possibility of advanced configuration and detailed reports of identified problems.

TheKaspersky Internet Security 2018 has an excellent price when we think about its capabilities: for $39.99 you can benefit from complete protection against various cyber threats.

For extra protection, you can opt for theKaspersky Total Security version. This one has the following bonus features:

The Kaspersky Total Security 2018 is available here at a very good price for its capabilities.

Our rating: 9.7/10

Compatibility:Windows XP, Vista, 7, 8, 8.1 and Windows 10

Discount: 50%

Price: $39.99 / 3 devices

Score: 9.6 / 10

Having already performed tests using the new McAfee Antivirus, the expectations we had about the companys Internet Security solution were sky high. After several days of testing, we can finally say that the new McAfee Internet Security 2018 exceeded expectations.

The application is different compared to the antivirus solution thanks to these additional modules:

The latest McAfee Internet Security features significant improvements. The scanning speed has increased and the impact on computer resources has decreased. If youre looking for excellent protection against cyber attacks and spam as well as parental control, the Internet Security from McAfee is one of your best choices. The application can be yours for $59.99 and its available here.

Our rating: 9.6/10

Compatibility:Windows 7, 8, 8.1 and 10

Discount: 15%

Price: $59.99 / 1 device

Score: 9.5 / 10

After reviewing the Antivirus option from Avast, we moved on to their Internet Security 2018 version. We had a pleasant surprise and it was all due to the improvements and additional modules we found. Here is a list of them:

The new Avast Internet Security has a very good price for its features. For only $47.99 you can enjoy excellent protection from viruses, phishing attacks and threats coming from hackers.

Our rating: 9.6/10

Compatibility:Windows XP (SP3), Vista, 7, 8, 8.1 and 10

Discount: 20%

Price: $47.99 / 1 device

Score: 9.4 / 10

The most recent version of the ESET Internet Security delivers many improvements and new features compared to the 2017 version our team recently looked at. Heres what you can expect from the 2018 version in terms of added features:

TheESET Internet Security 2018 comes with lots of excellent features, an easy-to-use interface and complete protection against a wide range of cyber threats. You can buy this top rated security suite here for only$49.99.

If you want a version that includes password management and the possibility to encrypt sensitive data, theESET Smart Security Premium 2018 is the way to go. You can get ithere for only $59.99, which is a great price for its features.

Our rating: 9.4/10

Compatibility: Windows Vista, 7, 8, 8.1 and 10

Discount:30%

Price: $49.99 / device

Score: 9.3 / 10

Panda Internet Security 2018 was one of the most pleasant surprises when we decided to make a list of the best security solutions for 2018. With its improved interface and new features, Pandas security suite left a great impression on us. Compared to theAntivirus Plus, the Panda Internet Security 2018 adds the following features:

The Panda Internet Security 2018 can be downloaded for one PC for only$29.99 from here.

Our rating: 9.2/10

Compatibility: Windows XP (SP 2), Vista, 7, 8, 8.1 and 10.

Discount:30%

Price: $29.99 / one device

Score: 9.2 / 10

Another product that caught our eye during the making of todays top Internet Security solutions for 2018 comes from AVG. Their latest creation has more features than the ones included in their free antivirus version. Here they are:

This product offers numerous other features we didnt include in todays post. If youre interested in a full review of the AVG Internet Security 2018, you can find one here.

AVGs security suite has an excellent price for the features it offers. For only$55.99, you can enjoy full protection for an unlimited number of devices.

Our rating: 9.3/10

Compatibility: Windows XP (SP 3), Vista (SP2), 7, 8, 8.1 and 10

Discount:30%

Price: $55.99 / unlimited devices

The number of cyber attacks continues to grow. The latest threats targeted not only home users, but also companies and government agencies.

Choosing a top rated Internet Security software solution is one of the smartest investments if you wish to protect your computers data. In case you want to benefit from total protection against cyber attacks, select one of the solutions we added to our list of best Internet Security applications for 2018.

Updated:January 27,2018

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Robinhood trading app introduces cryptocurrency – money.cnn.com

by Anna Bahney @annabahney January 25, 2018: 1:17 PM ET

Crypto trading will initially include only bitcoin and ethereum, with more coins offered later. Beginning in February, residents in five states will be the first to be able buy and sell — California, Massachusetts, Missouri, Montana and New Hampshire — with other states following in waves until trading is available nationwide.

Starting Thursday, all users can track market data for 16 coins (including litecoin and ripple), read crypto news, and create price alerts on Robinhood.

“It is fairly obvious that people care about [cryptocurrency],” says Baiju Bhatt, co-founder and co-CEO of Robinhood. “We want to be there and help shape the way the industry goes with a better platform at a better price.”

Related: Tell me again why I shouldn’t buy bitcoin?

Cryptos can be even riskier than other investments because of extreme volatility and security risks associated with an asset in its relative infancy. But that hasn’t stopped a wave of investors looking to jump in.

Bitcoin has been the word on everyone’s lips for the past few months, as the cryptocurrency has hit record highs. It has more than doubled since October and is now trading around $11,000, though down from its high just shy of $20,000 in December.

Bitcoin is not new to Bhatt and Robinhood co-founder and co-CEO Vlad Tenev, though. They have been looking at bitcoin and cryptos for a long time, even as far back as 2010 when they were doing their own crypto mining on personal computers.

“The thing we’re seeing now, over the past year is that crypto and bitcoin are showing resiliency,” says Bhatt. “So many times people have been quick to count it out. It has gone up and gone down. Now that resiliency is something that has some real staying power.”

There’s growing demand — particularly among young people — to get in on the action.

A recent study showed that if given $5,000, 12% of Millennials would put the money into cryptocurrency over any other type of investment, according to Swell Investing. That’s compared with just 3% of those aged 45-54 and 55-64. Men were more interested than women in putting their money in crypto, with 14% of Millennial men saying they would opt for that over any other investment, compared with 9% of women.

Related: Bitcoin mania: What the big names of finance are saying

For a company that has pegged itself as democratizing capitalism and making high-end financial products available to everyone, offering crypto is a natural fit with Robinhood’s mission, Bhatt says.

“Crypto-currencies have the potential to change how money around the world works from the ground up,” he says. “It is a shift from institutions back to the people and we want to be central in creating that change.”

And Robinhood is betting their entrance into the space will make investors more comfortable at the table.

Currently, most people buy cryptocurrencies like bitcoin and ethereum at digital exchanges like Coinbase.

Robinhood will offer easy access to funds, says Bhatt. It will make bank transfers up to $1,000 instantly available to trade crypto-currencies. Any additional funds transferred will land in your account via the normal ACH transfer system.

“The products out there now for trading crypto feel a lot more like Friendster,” says Bhatt, referencing an early social network before Facebook. “It isn’t clear which are going to emerge as the best and the way people invest in crypto today will not be the way they do in the future, but we aim to be a part of the future.”

CNNMoney (New York) First published January 25, 2018: 11:22 AM ET

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Robinhood adds zero-fee cryptocurrency trading and tracking …

No-commission stock trading app Robinhood will let you buy and sell Bitcoin and Ethereum without any added transaction fees starting in February, compared to Coinbases 1.5 to 4 percent fees in the US. And as of today Robinhood will let all users track the price, news, and set up alerts on those and 14 other top crypto coins, including Litecoin and Ripple.

Were planning to operate this business on a break-even basis and we dont plan to profit from it for the foreseeable future says Robinhood co-founder Vlad Tenev. The value of Robinhood Crypto is in growing our customer base and better servingour existing customers.

By essentially using crypto trading as a loss leader instead of its primary business like Coinbase and other apps, Robinhood could substantially expand beyond the 3 million users it already has. Simplifying trading and tracking could bolster Bitcoin and Ethereum. And by combining it with traditional stock, ETF, and option trading in a single app, Robinhood could further legitimize the cryptocurrency craze. The two trading worlds could cross-pollinate, dragging even more people into the crypto scene.

Robinhood founders Baiju Bhatt (left) and Vladamir Tenev (right)

Many of the startups dealing in crypto are upstarts with questionable track records. But five-year-old Robinhood has raised $176 million from top investors including Andreessen Horowitz, Index, and NEA that now value the company at $1.3 billion. Theres clear long-term benefit to rolling up crypto traders and using the feature as a wedge to get them to hold money with Robinhood where it earns interest, and pay for the Robinhood Gold premium tier for $6 to $200 a month that lets them borrow between $1,000 and $50,000.

Heres how Robinhood Crypto works. You can instantly transfer up to $1000 from your connected bank account (more if you have a Gold membership), with additional funds coming over slower ACH transfer. For smaller traders, that could eliminate the annoying delays on other platforms that can make you miss a low price you want to buy up. The whole Crypto section of Robinhood is styled with an 80s Tron design to denote the 24-hour trading window, compared to its day and night themes for when traditional stock markets are open or closed.

When you place a buy or sell order, Robinhood gives you an estimated price, connects to a slew of trading venues, exchanges, and market centers to find the lowest price, and uses its economies of scale to improve to score better prices over time. To counter market volatility, Robinhood puts a collar around your trade so if it cant execute it at close to the estimated price, it waits for the price to return or lets you know.

And in case the price of a coin skyrockets or plummets, you can place limit orders to set a price where you automatically buy or sell. The full list of coins you can track is Bitcoin, Ethereum, Bitcoin Cash, Litecoin, Ripple, Ethereum Classic, Zcash, Monero, Dash, Stellar, Qtum, Bitcoin Gold, OmiseGo, NEO, Lisk, and Dogecoin.

Only BTC and ETH will be available for trading when that rolls out to waves of users starting in California, Massachusetts, Missouri, Montana, and New Hampshire in February, though more will be added. Were extremely selective about the cryptos were making available on the platform says Tenev. Were introducing those first because these are the most mature coins that people are trading these days. Multiple times people have declared them dead and theyve come back stronger than ever.

To back-up the new Robinhood Crypto feature, the company is adding new two-factor authentication options including integrations with authenticator apps to ensure people dont get their wallets stolen and dumped. There are several senior world-class people that weve hired recently that are building the system in-house says Tenev. Still, the move paints a giant target on Robinhoods back. If the company gets hacked, or individual users get robbed, it could tarnish the fintech startups reputation.

Demand for the product was clear, though. 100,000 of Robinhoods users were regularly seaching for crypto pricing and trading in its app, and 95% of those surveyed said theyd invest in cryptos if the product supported it. Robinhood even had to send a cease-and-desist to Cobinhood, a competing crypto trading app that cribbed its name and raised $10 million in an ICO.

Judging by the choices of two top startups, you could see this week as a sign of cryptocurrencys shifting purpose. Yesterday Stripe removed Bitcoin as a payment option on its platform, and now Robinhood is adopting trading. People are thinking about cryptos less from a payments standpoint and more from an assets investment standpoint Tenev explains.

Robinhood Crypto features a Tron-style 80s design motif

As for whether hes personally invested in the crypto scene, Tenev admits Im a dabbler, definitely, but I wouldnt say that its all that significant. But its a good fit for his business, which used a lean engineering team to drop stock trading fees to zero while competitors like Scottrade and E*trade can charge over $6 per trade to cover their marketing and expansive retail footprint with huge overhead. Now Robinhood has handled $100 billion in transactions, saving its users over $1 billion in fees.

[Cryptocurrency] puts power thats historically been held by financial institutions in the hands of the people. I think that lines up directly with Robinhoods mission to democratize the financial system Tenev tells me, concluding Were an established company and we can handle it. The confidence to burst into the wild west of crypto could either tank his startup with a massive security fail or greatly boost its traction by alligning with whats become a cultural phenomenon.

Disclosures: The author of this article owns small positions in Bitcoin and Ethereum, and knows Robinhoods founders from college.

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Azure Search enterprise security: Data encryption and user …

Enterprise security requires a comprehensive approach for defense in depth. Effective immediately, Azure Search now supports encryption at rest for all incoming data indexed on or after January 24, 2018, in all regions and SKUs including shared (free) services. With this announcement, encryption now extends throughout the entire indexing pipeline from connection, through transmission, and down to indexed data stored in Azure Search.

At query time, you can implement user-identity access controls that trim search results of documents that the requestor is not authorized to see. Enhancements to filters enable integration with third-party authentication providers, as well as integration with Azure Active Directory.

All indexing includes encryption on the backend automatically with no measurable impact on indexing workloads or size. This applies to newly indexed documents only. For existing content, you have to re-index to gain encryption. Encryption status of any given index is not visible in the portal, nor available through the API. However, if you indexed after January 24, 2018, data is already encrypted.

In the context of Azure Search, all aspects of encryption, decryption, and key management are internal. You cannot turn it on or off, manage or substitute your own keys, or view encryption settings in the portal or programmatically. Internally, encryption is based on Azure Storage Service Encryption, using 256-bit AES encryption, one of the strongest block ciphers available.

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