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Bitcoin – Bitcoin Price Live, BTC Value, Mining, BTC to USD …

THE TEAM

Bitcoin was created by an anonymous name called Satoshi Nakamoto Other notable names rumored to be part of the team include

The practical uses of Bitcoin

If you have the required hardware, you can mine bitcoin even if you are not a miner. There are different ways one can mine bitcoin such as cloud mining, mining pool, etc. For cloud mining, all you need to do is to connect to the datacenter and start mining. The good thing about this is that you can mine from anywhere and you dont need a physical hardware to mine.

For mining pool, all you need to do is to join a mining group, and if that team solves a computational problem, blocks are added to the blockchain, they get the reward and you get a share of it based on your contribution.

PoW algorithm-SHA-256 is used for mining. Which utilizes a lot of computational power.

Bitcoin mining saps energy, costly, uses more power and also the reward delays. For mining, run software, get your wallet ready and be the first to solve a cryptographic problem and you get your reward after the new blocks have been added to the blockchain.Mining is said to be successful when all the transactions are recorded in the blockchain and the new blocks are added to the blockchain.

Notes for investors

Die-hard Bitcoin supporters believe that bitcoin is the future; we are just scratching the surface.Considering the continuous rise of bitcoin in the market capitalization, it is one investment every investor needs to take advantage of it.

The current market capitalization of bitcoin stands at an all-time high of $109 billion. As at January 2016, bitcoin was traded at I BTC for $970 but today is being traded at $6,600 for 1 BTC.

From the statistics presented above, it that bitcoin is one investment, you will never regret embarking on. It keeps recording an impressive results daily in the cryptocurrency market.

MUST READ!

Cryptocurrency investment is speculative, and it involves unquantifiable risks the market is full of uncertainty, susceptible to attack and capital loss, and sensitive to secondary issues, time may do not permit to mention here.Seek advice before investing.

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HTTPS – Wikipedia

HTTP Secure (HTTPS) is an extension of the Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) for secure communication over a computer network, and is widely used on the Internet.[1][2] In HTTPS, the communication protocol is encrypted using Transport Layer Security (TLS), or formerly, its predecessor, Secure Sockets Layer (SSL). The protocol is therefore also often referred to as HTTP over TLS,[3] or HTTP over SSL.

The principal motivation for HTTPS is authentication of the accessed website and protection of the privacy and integrity of the exchanged data while in transit. It protects against man-in-the-middle attacks. The bidirectional encryption of communications between a client and server protects against eavesdropping and tampering of the communication.[4] In practice, this provides a reasonable assurance that one is communicating without interference by attackers with the website that one intended to communicate with, as opposed to an impostor.

Historically, HTTPS connections were primarily used for payment transactions on the World Wide Web, e-mail and for sensitive transactions in corporate information systems.[citation needed] Since 2018[update][citation needed], HTTPS is used more often by webusers than the original non-secure HTTP, primarily to protect page authenticity on all types of websites; secure accounts; and keep user communications, identity, and web browsing private.

The Uniform Resource Identifier (URI) scheme HTTPS has identical usage syntax to the HTTP scheme. However, HTTPS signals the browser to use an added encryption layer of SSL/TLS to protect the traffic. SSL/TLS is especially suited for HTTP, since it can provide some protection even if only one side of the communication is authenticated. This is the case with HTTP transactions over the Internet, where typically only the server is authenticated (by the client examining the server’s certificate).

HTTPS creates a secure channel over an insecure network. This ensures reasonable protection from eavesdroppers and man-in-the-middle attacks, provided that adequate cipher suites are used and that the server certificate is verified and trusted.

Because HTTPS piggybacks HTTP entirely on top of TLS, the entirety of the underlying HTTP protocol can be encrypted. This includes the request URL (which particular web page was requested), query parameters, headers, and cookies (which often contain identity information about the user). However, because host (website) addresses and port numbers are necessarily part of the underlying TCP/IP protocols, HTTPS cannot protect their disclosure. In practice this means that even on a correctly configured web server, eavesdroppers can infer the IP address and port number of the web server (sometimes even the domain name e.g. http://www.example.org, but not the rest of the URL) that one is communicating with, as well as the amount (data transferred) and duration (length of session) of the communication, though not the content of the communication.[4]

Web browsers know how to trust HTTPS websites based on certificate authorities that come pre-installed in their software. Certificate authorities (such as Let’s Encrypt, Digicert, Comodo, GoDaddy and GlobalSign) are in this way being trusted by web browser creators to provide valid certificates. Therefore, a user should trust an HTTPS connection to a website if and only if all of the following are true:

HTTPS is especially important over insecure networks (such as public Wi-Fi access points), as anyone on the same local network can packet-sniff and discover sensitive information not protected by HTTPS. Additionally, many free to use and paid WLAN networks engage in packet injection in order to serve their own ads on webpages. However, this can be exploited maliciously in many ways, such as injecting malware onto webpages and stealing users’ private information.[5]

HTTPS is also very important for connections over the Tor anonymity network, as malicious Tor nodes can damage or alter the contents passing through them in an insecure fashion and inject malware into the connection. This is one reason why the Electronic Frontier Foundation and the Tor project started the development of HTTPS Everywhere,[4] which is included in the Tor Browser Bundle.[6]

As more information is revealed about global mass surveillance and criminals stealing personal information, the use of HTTPS security on all websites is becoming increasingly important regardless of the type of Internet connection being used.[7][8] While metadata about individual pages that a user visits is not sensitive, when combined, they can reveal a lot about the user and compromise the user’s privacy.[9][10][11]

Deploying HTTPS also allows the use of HTTP/2 (or its predecessor, the now-deprecated protocol SPDY), that are new generations of HTTP, designed to reduce page load times, size and latency.

It is recommended to use HTTP Strict Transport Security (HSTS) with HTTPS to protect users from man-in-the-middle attacks, especially SSL stripping.[11][12]

HTTPS should not be confused with the little-used Secure HTTP (S-HTTP) specified in RFC 2660.

As of April2018[update], 33.2% of Alexa top 1,000,000 websites use HTTPS as default,[13] 57.1% of the Internet’s 137,971 most popular websites have a secure implementation of HTTPS,[14] and 70% of page loads (measured by Firefox Telemetry) use HTTPS.[15]

Most browsers display a warning if they receive an invalid certificate. Older browsers, when connecting to a site with an invalid certificate, would present the user with a dialog box asking whether they wanted to continue. Newer browsers display a warning across the entire window. Newer browsers also prominently display the site’s security information in the address bar. Extended validation certificates turn the address bar green in newer browsers. Most browsers also display a warning to the user when visiting a site that contains a mixture of encrypted and unencrypted content.

Most web browsers alert the user when visiting sites that have invalid security certificates.

The Electronic Frontier Foundation, opining that “In an ideal world, every web request could be defaulted to HTTPS”, has provided an add-on called HTTPS Everywhere for Mozilla Firefox that enables HTTPS by default for hundreds of frequently used websites. A beta version of this plugin is also available for Google Chrome and Chromium.[16][17]

The security of HTTPS is that of the underlying TLS, which typically uses long-term public and private keys to generate a short-term session key, which is then used to encrypt the data flow between client and server. X.509 certificates are used to authenticate the server (and sometimes the client as well). As a consequence, certificate authorities and public key certificates are necessary to verify the relation between the certificate and its owner, as well as to generate, sign, and administer the validity of certificates. While this can be more beneficial than verifying the identities via a web of trust, the 2013 mass surveillance disclosures drew attention to certificate authorities as a potential weak point allowing man-in-the-middle attacks.[18][19] An important property in this context is forward secrecy, which ensures that encrypted communications recorded in the past cannot be retrieved and decrypted should long-term secret keys or passwords be compromised in the future. Not all web servers provide forward secrecy.[20][needs update]

A site must be completely hosted over HTTPS, without having part of its contents loaded over HTTPfor example, having scripts loaded insecurelyor the user will be vulnerable to some attacks and surveillance. Also having only a certain page that contains sensitive information (such as a log-in page) of a website loaded over HTTPS, while having the rest of the website loaded over plain HTTP, will expose the user to attacks. On a site that has sensitive information somewhere on it, every time that site is accessed with HTTP instead of HTTPS, the user and the session will get exposed. Similarly, cookies on a site served through HTTPS have to have the secure attribute enabled.[11]

HTTPS URLs begin with “https://” and use port 443 by default, whereas HTTP URLs begin with “http://” and use port 80 by default.

HTTP is not encrypted and is vulnerable to man-in-the-middle and eavesdropping attacks, which can let attackers gain access to website accounts and sensitive information, and modify webpages to inject malware or advertisements. HTTPS is designed to withstand such attacks and is considered secure against them (with the exception of older, deprecated versions of SSL).

HTTP operates at the highest layer of the TCP/IP model, the Application layer; as does the TLS security protocol (operating as a lower sublayer of the same layer), which encrypts an HTTP message prior to transmission and decrypts a message upon arrival. Strictly speaking, HTTPS is not a separate protocol, but refers to use of ordinary HTTP over an encrypted SSL/TLS connection.

Everything in the HTTPS message is encrypted, including the headers, and the request/response load. With the exception of the possible CCA cryptographic attack described in the limitations section below, the attacker can only know that a connection is taking place between the two parties and their domain names and IP addresses.

To prepare a web server to accept HTTPS connections, the administrator must create a public key certificate for the web server. This certificate must be signed by a trusted certificate authority for the web browser to accept it without warning. The authority certifies that the certificate holder is the operator of the web server that presents it. Web browsers are generally distributed with a list of signing certificates of major certificate authorities so that they can verify certificates signed by them.

Let’s Encrypt, launched in April 2016,[21] provides free and automated SSL/TLS certificates to websites.[22] According to the Electronic Frontier Foundation, “Let’s Encrypt” will make switching from HTTP to HTTPS “as easy as issuing one command, or clicking one button.”[23]. The majority of web hosts and cloud providers already leverage Let’s Encrypt, providing free certificates to their customers.

The system can also be used for client authentication in order to limit access to a web server to authorized users. To do this, the site administrator typically creates a certificate for each user, a certificate that is loaded into their browser. Normally, that contains the name and e-mail address of the authorized user and is automatically checked by the server on each reconnect to verify the user’s identity, potentially without even entering a password.

An important property in this context is perfect forward secrecy (PFS). Possessing one of the long-term asymmetric secret keys used to establish an HTTPS session should not make it easier to derive the short-term session key to then decrypt the conversation, even at a later time. DiffieHellman key exchange (DHE) and Elliptic curve DiffieHellman key exchange (ECDHE) are in 2013 the only ones known to have that property. Only 30% of Firefox, Opera, and Chromium Browser sessions use it, and nearly 0% of Apple’s Safari and Microsoft Internet Explorer sessions.[20] Among the larger internet providers, only Google supports PFS since 2011[update] (State of September 2013).[citation needed]

A certificate may be revoked before it expires, for example because the secrecy of the private key has been compromised. Newer versions of popular browsers such as Firefox,[24] Opera,[25] and Internet Explorer on Windows Vista[26] implement the Online Certificate Status Protocol (OCSP) to verify that this is not the case. The browser sends the certificate’s serial number to the certificate authority or its delegate via OCSP and the authority responds, telling the browser whether the certificate is still valid.[27]

SSL and TLS encryption can be configured in two modes: simple and mutual. In simple mode, authentication is only performed by the server. The mutual version requires the user to install a personal client certificate in the web browser for user authentication.[28] In either case, the level of protection depends on the correctness of the implementation of software and the cryptographic algorithms in use.

SSL/TLS does not prevent the indexing of the site by a web crawler, and in some cases the URI of the encrypted resource can be inferred by knowing only the intercepted request/response size.[29] This allows an attacker to have access to the plaintext (the publicly available static content), and the encrypted text (the encrypted version of the static content), permitting a cryptographic attack.

Because TLS operates at a protocol level below that of HTTP, and has no knowledge of the higher-level protocols, TLS servers can only strictly present one certificate for a particular address and port combination.[30] In the past, this meant that it was not feasible to use name-based virtual hosting with HTTPS. A solution called Server Name Indication (SNI) exists, which sends the hostname to the server before encrypting the connection, although many old browsers do not support this extension. Support for SNI is available since Firefox 2, Opera 8, Safari 2.1, Google Chrome 6, and Internet Explorer 7 on Windows Vista.[31][32][33]

From an architectural point of view:

A sophisticated type of man-in-the-middle attack called SSL stripping was presented at the Blackhat Conference 2009. This type of attack defeats the security provided by HTTPS by changing the https: link into an http: link, taking advantage of the fact that few Internet users actually type “https” into their browser interface: they get to a secure site by clicking on a link, and thus are fooled into thinking that they are using HTTPS when in fact they are using HTTP. The attacker then communicates in clear with the client.[34] This prompted the development of a countermeasure in HTTP called HTTP Strict Transport Security.

HTTPS has been shown vulnerable to a range of traffic analysis attacks. Traffic analysis attacks are a type of side-channel attack that relies on variations in the timing and size of traffic in order to infer properties about the encrypted traffic itself. Traffic analysis is possible because SSL/TLS encryption changes the contents of traffic, but has minimal impact on the size and timing of traffic. In May 2010, a research paper by researchers from Microsoft Research and Indiana University discovered that detailed sensitive user data can be inferred from side channels such as packet sizes. More specifically, the researchers found that an eavesdropper can infer the illnesses/medications/surgeries of the user, his/her family income and investment secrets, despite HTTPS protection in several high-profile, top-of-the-line web applications in healthcare, taxation, investment and web search.[35] Although this work demonstrated vulnerability of HTTPS to traffic analysis, the approach presented by the authors required manual analysis and focused specifically on web applications protected by HTTPS.

The fact that most modern websites, including Google, Yahoo!, and Amazon, use HTTPS causes problems for many users trying to access public Wi-Fi hot spots, because a Wi-Fi hot spot login page fails to load if the user tries to open an HTTPS resource.[36][37] Several websites, such as neverssl.com or nonhttps.com, guarantee that they will always remain accessible by HTTP.

Netscape Communications created HTTPS in 1994 for its Netscape Navigator web browser.[38] Originally, HTTPS was used with the SSL protocol. As SSL evolved into Transport Layer Security (TLS), HTTPS was formally specified by RFC 2818 in May 2000.

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Two Quantum Computing Bills Are Coming To Congress

Quantum computing has made it to the United States Congress. “Quantum computing is the next technological frontier that will change the world, and we cannot afford to fall behind,” said Senator Kamala Harris (D-California) in a statement passed to Gizmodo. “We must act now to address the challenges we face in the development of this technology — our future depends on it.” From the report: The bill introduced by Harris in the Senate focuses on defense, calling for the creation of a consortium of researchers selected by the Chief of Naval Research and the Director of the Army Research Laboratory. The consortium would award grants, assist with research, and facilitate partnerships between the members. Another, yet-to-be-introduced bill, seen in draft form by Gizmodo, calls for a 10-year National Quantum Initiative Program to set goals and priorities for quantum computing in the US; invest in the technology; and partner with academia and industry. An office within the Department of Energy would coordinate the program. Another group would include members from the National Science Foundation, the National Institute of Standards and Technology, the Department of Energy, the office of the Director of National Intelligence to coordinate research and education activity between agencies. Furthermore, the draft bill calls for the establishment of up to five Quantum Information Science research centers, as well as two multidisciplinary National Centers for Quantum Research and Education.

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Amazon Drive

Amazon Drive: Amazon Drive offers secure cloud storage for your photos, files, videos, and more. Back up your files to the cloud and know that all of your documents are safe. Once your files are uploaded, you can access them from your computer, your phone, or your tablet, all with the Amazon Drive app. All Amazon customers receive 5GB of free storage. Amazon Drive lets you free up space on your phone, tablet, and computer, by backing up all of your documents to one secure place. Sign in to Amazon Drive on the web, or through the free iOS and Android apps, and save, share, organize, and store all of your stuff. Get started on Amazon Drive with 5 GB of free storage.

You can store all of your files, photos, videos, and more. Back up your content to one secure place, and access it from anywhere with the Amazon Drive desktop and mobile apps on iOS and Android. Access all of your documents from anywhere, and share them with friends and family, without having to log on to your computer.

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USING ALTCOIN TRADER – rsainvestments.blogspot.com

VISIT http://WWW.ALCOINTRADER.CO.ZA OR EVEN GOOGLE IT CLICK ON REGISTER. FILIN YOUR DETAILS AND REGISTER. IF YOU GET AN EMAIL FOR CONFIRMATION.LOGIN AND CONFIRM , IF YOU DONT GET IT JUST LOGIN WITH EMAIL AND PASSWORD YOU CHOSE. AFTER LOGGING IN YOU WILL SEE A SCREEN PAGE BELOW.

IF YOU DONT HAVE BITCOINS YOU CAN BUY THEM AT ALTCOINTRADER. SIMPLE WRITE THE VALUE OF BITCOINS YOU NEED ON BUY AS I DID BELOW. WRITE THE BITCOIN VALUE AS IT IS, THAN AUTOMATICALLY YOU WILL GET PRICE IN RANDS FOR THAT BITCOIN VALUE WHERE IT SAYS TOTAL, THE MONEY THERE IS IN ZAR/RANDS. IF YOU ALREAD HAVE BITCOINS, YOU WANA EXCHANGE/SELL THEM TO GET CASH IN YOUR BANK THAN YOU USE SELL NOT BUY. AGAIN YOU WRITE THE AMOUNT OR VALUE OF BITCOINS YOU HAVE. AUTOMATICALY YOU WILL SEE THE PRICE OR MONEY YOU WILL GET FRO THOSE BITCOINS YOU HAVE. NOTE: BITCOINS DONT START AT 1 BUT THEY START AT 0.0000… NUMBERS, SO YOU CAN GET BITCOINS FOR EVEN R500 TRY 0.05 E.T.C

IF YOU WANA BUY BITCOINS AND YOU HAVE CASH. YOU NEED TO DEPOSIT MONEY TO ALTCOIN TRADER THROUGH FNB, ABSA. THE AMOUNT OF MONEY YOU HAVE THAN YOU WILL GET BITCOINS EQUAL TO YOUR MONEY. MAKE SURE YOUR WRITE THE REFERENCE GIVEN TO YOU WHEN YOU CLICK ON DEPOSIT. CAUSE THAT YOUR OWN UNIQUE REFERENCE. IF YOU WRITE YOUR NAME OR ANYTHING ELSE. I FELL SORRY FOR YOU CAUSE I TOLD YOU. CHECK IMAGE BELOW

ONCE YOU DEPOSITED THE MONEY IT MUST REFLECT IN YOUR ALTCOINTRADER IN A DAY OR 2 PROVIDED YOU DIDNT MAKE MISTAKES ESPECIAL ON REFERENCE.

THAN ONCE YOUR MONEY IS THERE YOU SIMPLE DO WHAT I TOLD YOU ABOVE, YOU GO TO BUY, AND WRITE BITCOIN VALUE FOR THAT AMOUNT YOU HAVE. IF YOU DONT KNOW THERE VALUE , EASY, USE GOOGLE . EXAMPLE: YOU DEPOSIT R1500 NOW GO TO GOOGLE AND WRITE: BITCOIN VAUE FOR 1500 , BUT IT WILL NOLONGER BE 1500 IF YOU WANT 1500 ATLEAST DEPOSIT 1600, JUST ADD R100 MORE, YOU DOING THAT FOR DEPOSIT FEES. THAN YOU GET THE VALUE GO BACK TO ALTCOIN TRADER AND WRITE IT THERE ON BTC AMOUNT ON BUY. THAN YOU CLICK BUY. THE BALANCE YOU HAD IN ZAR WILL CHANGE IMMEDIATELT TO BALANCE IN BTC ( BITCOINS)

NOW YOU HAVE BITCOINS, BUT THEY ARE NOT IN YOUR WALLET. NOW YOU NEED TO SEND THEM TO YOUR WALLET. NOW YOU NEED TO CLICK ON WITHDRAW FUNDS/COINS. SCROLL DOWN TO WITHDRAW BTC

GO TO YOUR XAPO, COPY YOUR WALLET ADDRESS, COMEBACK TO ALTCOIN TRADER, PASTE YOUR WALLET ADDRESS THERE AS YOU SEE BELOW, WRITE BITCOIN VALUE YOU WANA WITHDRAW AND SEND TO YOUR WALLET THAN CLICK WITHDRAW. THATS IT, IF MINUTES YOUR BITCOINS WILL REFLECT IN XAPO, READY FOR YOU TO PH

NOW YOU WANA WITHDRAW, SO WE REVERSE THE PROCESS. LOGIN TO ALTCOIN TRADER AND CLICK ON DEPOSIT YES I DIDNT MAKE A MISTAKE CLICK ON DEPOSIT. WHAT YOU DOING NOW IS YOU WANA DEPOSIT BITCOINS TO ALTCOINTRADER AND SELL THEM TO GET CASH IN YOUR BANK ACCOUNT

SO CLICK ON DEPOSIT. SCROLL DOWN TO DEPOSIT BTC INTO YOUR ACCOUNT

THEY GOING TO GIVE YOU A WALLET ADDRESS THAT YOU USE ONLY TO TRANSFER BITCOINS TO ALTCOIN TRADER. COPY IT AS YOU SEE ON IMAGE BELOW. COPY IT AND PASTE IT ON XAPO THAN SEND YOUR BITCOIN TO ALTCOIN TRADER

ONCE YOUR BITCOINS REFLECT ON ALTCOIN TRADER BALANCE. NOW YOU GO ON SELL, WRITE THAT BITCOIN AMOUNT YOU HAVE AND CLICK ON SELL. IMMEDIATELY YOU BITCOINS ARE EXCHANGED TO CASH.

NOW YOU WANA GET THAT MONEY INTO YOUR BANK ACCOUNT CLICK ON WITHDRAW. ADD YOUR BANKING DETAILS. IF YOU ALREADY ADDE THEM THAN JUST WRITE AMOUNT OF CASH YOU NEED AND CLICK WITHDRAW AS SEEN BELOW

FUNDS WILL BE IN YOUR ACCOUNT WITHIN A DAY OR 2

IF YOU STILL DONT UNDERSTAND HERE IS A VIDEO WATCH IT IT WILL EXPLAIN MORE ABOUT USING ALTCOINTRADER

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Cloud Storage Pricing | S3 Pricing by Region | Amazon …

See the Glacier Pricing Page for other Glacier retrieval fees.

No charge for delete requests of S3 Standard objects. Objects that are archived to Amazon Glacier have a minimum 90 days of storage, and objects deleted before 90 days incur a pro-rated charge equal to the storage charge for the remaining days. Learn more. Objects that are in S3 Standard-Infrequent Access have a minimum 30 days of storage, and objects that are deleted, overwritten, or transitioned to a different storage class before 30 days incur a pro-rated charge equal to the storage charge for the remaining days. Learn more.

Except as otherwise noted, our prices are exclusive of applicable taxes and duties, including VAT and applicable sales tax. For customers with a Japanese billing address, use of AWS is subject to Japanese Consumption Tax. Learn more.

Amazon S3 Storage Management is priced per feature as detailed in the table below. For pricing on S3CloudWatchMetrics, visit the CloudWatch pricing page. For pricing on S3 Data Events inCloudTrail, visit the CloudTrail pricing page.

The files produced by S3 Inventory & S3 Analytics – Storage Class Analysis exports are stored in your specified S3 bucket, and are subject to S3 Standard storage charges.

The pricing below is based on data transferred “in” to and “out” of Amazon S3 (over the public Internet). AWS Direct Connect pricing can be found here. Transfers between S3 buckets or from S3 to any service(s) within the same region are free.

For Data Transfer exceeding 500TB/Month please Contact Us

Except as otherwise noted, our prices are exclusive of applicable taxes and duties, including VAT and applicable sales tax. For customers with a Japanese billing address, use of AWS is subject to Japanese Consumption Tax. Learn more.

Storage and bandwidth size includes all file overhead.

Rate tiers take into account your aggregate usage for Data Transfer Out to the Internet across all AWS services.

Pricing is based on the AWS edge location used to accelerate your transfer. Transfer Acceleration pricing is in addition to Data Transfer pricing.

Each time you use Transfer Acceleration to upload an object, we will check whether Transfer Acceleration is likely to be faster than a regular Amazon S3 transfer. If we determine that Transfer Acceleration is not likely to be faster than a regular Amazon S3 transfer of the same object to the same destination AWS region, we will not charge for that use of Transfer Acceleration for that transfer, and may bypass the Transfer Acceleration system for that upload.

Check your performance with the Amazon S3 Transfer Acceleration speed comparison tool.

CRR is an Amazon S3 feature that automatically replicates data across AWS regions. With CRR, every object uploaded to an S3 source bucket is automatically replicated to a destination bucket in a different AWS region that you choose. You pay the Amazon S3 charges for storage, requests, and inter-region data transfer for the replicated copy of data in addition to the storage charges for the primary copy. Pricing for the replicated copy of storage is based on the destination region, while pricing for requests and inter-region data transfer are based on the source region.

For more information on the Cross-Region Replication feature, please visit the CRR FAQs and the CRR web page in the Developer Guide.

AWS GovCloud is an AWS Region designed to allow U.S. government agencies and contractors to move more sensitive workloads into the cloud by addressing their specific regulatory and compliance requirements. For pricing and more information on the new AWS GovCloud Region, please visit the AWS GovCloud web page.

* Your usage for the free tier is calculated each month across all regions except the AWS GovCloud Region and automatically applied to your bill unused monthly usage will not roll over. Restrictions apply; See offer terms for more details.

(Amazon S3 is sold by Amazon Web Services, Inc..)

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Internet Security is an important part of Identity Theft …

Every day your email inbox contains dangerous email scams. But, as the scams – often consisting of “phishing” emails designed by identity thieves to steal your personal information – become more sophisticated, how can you tell a dangerous email from a legitimate one? identitytheft.info worked with Identity Theft Expert Bob Sullivan of MSNBC to create this video warning consumers about the dangers of “phishing” emails.

Just as we secure our homes from burglars seeking to physically break-in and steal our most valuable possessions, we must be equally vigilant in the 21st Century at protecting the valuable information stored on our computers from cybercriminals who constantly attempt to break-in by means of the Internet. And, just as we can deter most burglars from raiding our homes by making it more impenetrable than our neighbors, we can do the same when it comes to erecting defenses against identity thieves and other cybercriminals.

The first line of defense in Internet security is cybercrime awareness. By being aware of the various methods cybercriminals use to penetrate your computer and steal your personal information, you will increase the odds that you wont be a victim of identity theft or other forms of cybercrime.

One of the most common methods identity thieves and cybercriminals use to steal personal information is the use of phishing.

Phishing is a form of social engineering that uses email or instant messages that appear to be from a government agency, financial institution, Internet Service Provider (ISP), Internet-based company or any agency or business you trust and/or do business with. The intent of the phishing communication is to deceive you into divulging personal information such as web site usernames and passwords, credit card numbers, financial account numbers, Social Security numbers, dates of birth and any other form of personal or account information that an identity thief or cybercriminal can use to carry out criminal activity.

A phishing email will either entice you with the promise of money or appeal to your desire to protect your personal information by claiming that your account has been compromised. You will be advised to click on a link in the email in order to receive money or to provide information in order to secure or re-activate your account. The financial enticement or the advice to follow a link and provide additional information in order to secure or re-activate your account is the bait the cybercriminal dangles before you – hence the term phishing. By taking the bait and clicking on the link in a phishing email, you are exposed to at least two risks.

The first risk involved in clicking on any link in a phishing email is that you will be re-directed to a web site that will look similar or identical to the web site the cybercriminal is impersonating. Once at the site, you will be directed to provide personal information that will allow the identity thief or cybercriminal to steal that personal information and use it for financial fraud or other crimes.

The second risk involved in clicking on any link in a phishing email is that you will be activating the execution and installation of a virus that will be surreptitiously installed on your computer. The virus may steal the personal information stored on your computer by transmitting the personal information to the identity thief or cybercriminal who sent you the phishing email. The virus may also take over your computer and turn it into part of a botnet (malicious software robot network) designed to transmit other virus laden emails to thousands of other computers around the world.

The best way to avoid becoming an identity theft victim as the result of falling for a phishing email is to follow two rules. First, never trust an email you didnt request that directs you to provide information in order to obtain a benefit or to secure or re-activate an account. Second, if you do open an email that requests personal or financial information from you, never left-click on a link in the email.

No reputable business or agency will send you an unsolicited email requesting personal or financial information from you. If you believe the email might be legitimate, contact the sending business or agency either by using a web address you’ve previously bookmarked, one that you obtain independently from the email or by calling a phone number using a listing obtained independently of the email.

Remember: The greatest danger associated with a phishing email is from left-clicking on any links within the email. So think before you click. Better yet dont click at all.

To report a phishing email and help in the fight against identity theft and cyber crime click here.

For more information about phishing emails – and to see several examples of phishing emails commonly placed in circulation – please watch the video above produced by identitytheft.info in cooperation with consumer reporter Bob Sullivan of MSNBC.

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V3 Internet Security | AhnLab

Overview

If your business, like many, struggles to find effective ways to deploy endpoint security software solutions and manage them efficiently to ensure the security integrity and compliance of your organization, AhnLab has the solution. AhnLab V3 Internet Security can help you protect your important business assets with greater confidence and agility.

AhnLab V3 Internet Security provides comprehensive, cost-effective, and user-friendly protection that requires fewer system resources than other options on the market. Reap the benefits of this powerful product and services to take your enterprise to a new level of threat protection.

Anti-Virus/Anti-Spyware

Provides robust protection against viruses, worms, Trojans, and spyware. Powered by the cloud-based AhnLab Smart Defense and DNS Scan technology, it delivers proactive and instant protection for endpoint systems without the risk of false positives. The highly-effective TrueFind feature adds another layer of protection by detecting and removing even the most well-hidden of rootkits.

Web Security

Blocks phishing sites and filters URLs to prevent the leakage of sensitive personal data. Users can manually register harmful sites for increased protection.

Mail Security

Protects users against malicious email and instant messages. By performing real-time scans of incoming and outgoing email attachments, it blocks malicious content and repairs infected files. A customizable keyword list filters out spam to safeguard identities sensitive data from phishing attacks.

Network Intrusion Prevention/Personal Firewall

Blocks harmful network attacks, while the two-way personal firewall prevents intruders from accessing your network.

USB Flash Drive Scan

Provides powerful virus detection to remove suspicious files and block autoruns on portable storage devices. This feature protects one of the most difficult points to manage in you network.

Complete Date Wipe

The data wipe feature securely erases folders and sensitive files to eliminate the potential for a confidential data breach. It removes all traces of data with a multi-pass overwriting algorithm to ensure that no recovery tool can recover or expose your information.

PC Tune-Up

Clears temporary files, registries, and other unused data to enhance system performance and keep computers running smoothly.

In today’s security environment, businesses require swift and comprehensive countermeasures against sophisticated and targeted threats. At the same time, organizations of all sizes are seeking greater efficiency and productivity. AhnLab V3 Internet Security will deliver comprehensive, cost-effective security for enterprises.

Find out how AhnLab V3 Internet Security can ensure your business security.

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AES encryption

AES encryption

Encrypt and decrypt text with AES algorithm

As you see this implementation is using openssl instead of mcrypt and the result of the encryption/decryption is not compatible with each other.The mcrypt function will be deprecated feature in PHP 7.1.x

It is a webtool to encrypt and decrypt text using AES encryption algorithm. You can chose 128, 192 or 256-bit long key size for encryption and decryption. The result of the process is downloadable in a text file.

If you want to encrypt a text put it in the white textarea above, set the key of the encryption then push the Encrypt button.The result of the encryption will appear in base64 encoded to prevent character encoding problems.If you want to decrypt a text be sure it is in base64 encoded and is encrypted with AES algorithm!Put the encrypted text in the white textarea, set the key and push the Decrypt button.

When you want to encrypt a confidential text into a decryptable format, for example when you need to send sensitive data in e-mail.The decryption of the encrypted text it is possible only if you know the right password.

AES (acronym of Advanced Encryption Standard) is a symmetric encryption algorithm.The algorithm was developed by two Belgian cryptographer Joan Daemen and Vincent Rijmen.AES was designed to be efficient in both hardware and software, and supports a block length of 128 bits and key lengths of 128, 192, and 256 bits.

AES encryption is used by U.S. for securing sensitive but unclassified material, so we can say it is enough secure.

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AES encryption

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Encrypt email messages – Outlook

When you need to protect the privacy of an email message, encrypt it. Encrypting an email message in Outlook means it’s converted from readable plain text into scrambled cipher text. Only the recipient who has the private key that matches the public key used to encrypt the message can decipher the message for reading. Any recipient without the corresponding private key, however, sees indecipherable text.

This article is specifically about encrypting and digitally signing a message with S/MIME. To understand the full list of email encryption options go to the article on Email Encryption in Office 365.

What happens if the recipient doesn’t have the corresponding private key? The recipient will see this message:

“This item cannot be displayed in the Reading Pane. Open the item to read its contents.”

And if the recipient tries to open the item, a dialog box opens with this message:

“Sorry, we’re having trouble opening this item. This could be temporary, but if you see it again you might want to restart Outlook. Your Digital ID name cannot be found by the underlying security system.”

Sending and viewing encrypted email messages requires both sender and recipient to share their digital ID, or public key certificate. This means that you and the recipient each must send the other a digitally signed message, which enables you to add the other person’s certificate to your Contacts. You cant encrypt email messages without a digital ID.

If you send an encrypted message to a recipient whose email setup doesnt support encryption, you’re offered the option of sending the message in an unencrypted format.

Any attachments sent with encrypted messages also are encrypted.

In message that you are composing, click File > Properties.

Click Security Settings, and then select the Encrypt message contents and attachments check box.

Compose your message, and then click Send.

When you choose to encrypt all outgoing messages by default, you can write and send messages the same as with any other messages, but all potential recipients must have your digital ID to decode or view your messages.

On the File tab. choose Options >Trust Center > Trust Center Settings.

On the Email Security tab, under Encrypted email, select the Encrypt contents and attachments for outgoing messages check box.

To change additional settings, such as choosing a specific certificate to use, click Settings.

In the message that you’re composing, on the Options tab, in the More Options group, click the dialog box launcher in the lower-right corner.

Click Security Settings, and then select the Encrypt message contents and attachments check box.

Compose your message, and then click Send.

When you choose to encrypt all outgoing messages by default, you can write and send messages the same as you do with any other messages. All potential recipients, however, must have your digital ID to decode or view those messages.

On the File tab, click Options > Trust Center > Trust Center Settings.

On the E-mail Security tab, under Encrypted e-mail, select the Encrypt contents and attachments for outgoing messages check box.

To change additional settings, such as choosing a specific certificate to use, click Settings.

In the message, on the Message tab, in the Options group on the ribbon, click the Encrypt Message Contents and Attachments button .

Note:If you don’t see this button, click the Options Dialog Box Launcher in the lower-right corner of the group to open the Message Options dialog box. Click the Security Settings button, and in the Security Properties dialog box, select Encrypt message contents and attachments. Click OK, and then close the Message Options dialog box.

Compose your message and send it.

Choosing to encrypt all outgoing messages means, in effect, your e-mail is encrypted by default. You can write and send messages the same as with any other e-mail messages, but all potential recipients must have your digital ID to decode your messages.

On the Tools menu, click Trust Center, and then click E-mail Security.

Under Encrypted e-mail, select the Encrypt contents and attachments for outgoing messages check box.

To change additional settings, such as choosing a specific certificate to use, click Settings.

Click OK twice.

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Encrypt email messages – Outlook

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