Category Archives: Cloud Computing
Examples of cloud computing include Software as a Service, Platform as a Service, and Infrastructure as a Service. Generally, cloud computing services are run outside the walls of the customer organization, on a vendor’s infrastructure with vendor maintenance.
Although cloud-like services can be internal (e.g., IU’s Intelligent Infrastructure), this document refers exclusively to cloud services provided by third-party vendors over a network connection where at least part of the service resides outside the institution, regardless of whether those services are offered freely to the public or privately to paying or registered users.
Cloud computing represents an externalization of information technology applications and infrastructure beyond an organization’s data center walls. In the university context, cloud computing may be thought of as extra-campus or above-campus computing.
Cloud services are often available “on demand,” and utilize an infrastructure shared by the vendor’s customers. While some offer a flat fee model or consumption-based pricing, other cloud services are offered at no cost.
Within the university, the confidentiality, integrity, availability, use control, and accountability of institutional data and services are expected to be ensured by a suite of physical, technical, and administrative safeguards proportional to the sensitivity and criticality (i.e., risk) of those information assets and services.
These safeguards help protect the reputation of the university and reduce institutional exposure to legal and compliance risks. Much of the challenge in approaching cloud computing involves determining whether a service vendor has adequate safeguards in place commensurate with the value and risk associated with assets and services involved.
Once the high-level challenges are understood, the next step is to consider the risks and determine whether or how to appropriately mitigate those risks in the context of the proposed information and/or service.
The above factors should not be taken to suggest that cloud computing has no potential benefits; but rather that the benefits must be balanced with the risks involved when evaluating the use of cloud computing services.
Cloud computing services are similar to traditional outsourcing and can be approached analogously while accounting for their unique risks/benefits. The following recommendations and strategies are intended to assist units in their approach to evaluating the prudence and feasibility of leveraging cloud services.
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Cloud computing: Hardware & Software Security: Online …
Today there is no single cloud, and applications and their developers play a more critical role than ever. Organizations are challenged to find the right people, processes, and tools to simplify the complexities of a multicloud world and to innovate quickly.
Automation and orchestration. Compliance. Workload governance. Kubernetes and containers. SaaS security and performance. Consistent networking and security policies. It can all get to be too much, too fast. But what if there was an answer for all this complexity? What if we could make things simpler?
Cisco brings together networking, security, analytics, and management. We deliver cloud solutions that span your multicloud world, from your on-premises environment to your multiple cloud providers, and from your applications to your infrastructure.
Our cloud solutions help you manage a private, hybrid, or public cloud, or all of the above. Whether you have one application and one cloud or multicloud applications and multiple clouds, we help you embrace a multicloud world by simplifying how you connect, protect, and consume your clouds.
Cloud Solutions from Cisco – Cisco
Cloud Computing tutorial provides basic and advanced concepts of Cloud Computing. Our Cloud Computing tutorial is designed for beginners and professionals.
Cloud Computing Tutorial with high end solution of IT infrastructure. Cloud computing is a virtualization based technology that reduces the cost of IT infrastructure. It provides a solution of IT infrastructure in low cost.
In this cloud tutorial, you will learn basics and advanced topics of cloud which is developed for beginners and professionals.
Cloud computing means on demand delivery of IT resources via the internet with pay-as-you-go pricing. It provides a solution of IT infrastructure in low cost.
Actually, Small as well as some large IT companies follows the traditional methods to provide the IT infrastructure. That means for any IT company, we need a Server Room that is the basic need of IT companies.
In that server room, there should be a database server, mail server, networking, firewalls, routers, modem, switches, QPS (Query Per Second means how much queries or load will be handled by the server) , configurable system, high net speed and the maintenance engineers.
To establish such IT infrastructure, we need to spend lots of money. To overcome all these problems and to reduce the IT infrastructure cost, Cloud Computing comes into existence.
The characteristics of cloud computing are given below:
The cloud works in the distributed computing environment. It shares resources among users and works very fast.
Availability of servers is high and more reliable, because chances of infrastructure failure are minimal.
Means “on-demand” provisioning of resources on a large scale, without having engineers for peak loads.
With the help of cloud computing, multiple users and applications can work more efficiently with cost reductions by sharing common infrastructure.
Cloud computing enables the users to access systems using a web browser regardless of their location or what device they use e.g. PC, mobile phone etc. As infrastructure is off-site (typically provided by a third-party) and accessed via the Internet, users can connect from anywhere.
Maintenance of cloud computing applications is easier, since they do not need to be installed on each user’s computer and can be accessed from different places. So, it reduces the cost also.
By using cloud computing, the cost will be reduced because to take the services of cloud computing, IT company need not to set its own infrastructure and pay-as-per usage of resources.
Application Programming Interfaces (APIs) are provided to the users so that they can access services on the cloud by using these APIs and pay the charges as per the usage of services.
Types of Cloud
Cloud Service Models
Before learning Cloud Computing, you must have the basic knowledge of Operating System.
Our Cloud Computing Tutorial is designed to help beginners and professionals.
We assure that you will not find any problem in this Cloud Computing tutorial. But if there is any mistake, please post the problem in contact form.
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Learn Cloud Computing Tutorial – javatpoint
Why cloud computing represents a paradigm shift for business, and how business users can best take advantage of cloud services.
Most of the information available on cloud computing is either highly technical, with details that are irrelevant to non-technologists, or pure marketing hype, in which the cloud is simply a selling point. This book, however, explains the cloud from the user’s viewpointthe business user’s in particular. Nayan Ruparelia explains what the cloud is, when to use it (and when not to), how to select a cloud service, how to integrate it with other technologies, and what the best practices are for using cloud computing.
Cutting through the hype, Ruparelia cites the simple and basic definition of cloud computing from the National Institute of Science and Technology: a model enabling ubiquitous, convenient, on-demand network access to a shared pool of configurable computing resources. Thus with cloud computing, businesses can harness information technology resources usually available only to large enterprises. And this, Ruparelia demonstrates, represents a paradigm shift for business. It will ease funding for startups, alter business plans, and allow big businesses greater agility.
Ruparelia discusses the key issues for any organization considering cloud computing: service level agreements, business service delivery and consumption, finance, legal jurisdiction, security, and social responsibility. He introduces novel concepts made possible by cloud computing: cloud cells, or specialist clouds for specific uses; the personal cloud; the cloud of things; and cloud service exchanges. He examines use case patterns in terms of infrastructure and platform, software information, and business process; and he explains how to transition to a cloud service. Current and future users will find this book an indispensable guide to the cloud.
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Cloud Computing | The MIT Press
IEEE Standards Association
Developing Standards for Cloud Computing
The IEEE Standards Association (IEEE-SA) is a leading consensus building organization that nurtures, develops and advances global technologies, through IEEE. We bring together a broad range of individuals and organizations from a wide range of technical and geographic points of origin to facilitate standards development and standards related collaboration. With collaborative thought leaders in more than 160 countries, we promote innovation, enable the creation and expansion of international markets and help protect health and public safety. Collectively, our work drives the functionality, capabilities and interoperability of a wide range of products and services that transform the way people live, work and communicate.
The IEEE Cloud Computing Initiative has originated two working drafts:
Cloud Computing and Standardization: Technical Reports Published
ITU-Ts Focus Group on Cloud Computing has completed its preliminary study into cloud computings standardization ecosystem and has released its FG Cloud Technical Report (Parts 1 to 7). The reports signal the conclusion of the Focus Groups study period and its findings come to form input for the cloud computing work taking place across the ITU-T under the leadership of Study Group 13 (Future Networks), overseen by the Joint Coordination Activity on Cloud Computing.
Clear industry demand for the technology and the promise of new revenues to ICT players has led to great market optimism, with one forecast predicting that global cloud IP traffic will account for more than one-third of total data center traffic by 2015. Cisco Global Cloud Index: Forecast and Methodology, 20102015 (PDF, 799 KB).
Cloud Computing Program
NIST’s long-term goal is to provide leadership and guidance around the cloud computing paradigm to catalyze its use within industry and government. NIST aims to shorten the adoption cycle, which will enable near-term cost savings and increased ability to quickly create and deploy safe and secure enterprise solutions. NIST aims to foster cloud computing practices that support interoperability, portability, and security requirements that are appropriate and achievable for important usage scenarios.
The NIST area of focus is technology, and specifically, interoperability, portability, and security requirements, standards, and guidance. The intent is to use the standards strategy to prioritize NIST tactical projects which support USG agencies in the secure and effective adoption of the cloud computing model to support their missions. The expectation is that the set of priorities will be useful more broadly by industry, SDOs, cloud adopters, and policy makers.
Visit NIST Cloud Computing Program at NIST.gov
Read NIST Special Publication 500-291, NIST Cloud Computing Standards Roadmap, July 2011 (PDF. 1.52 MB)
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Standards – IEEE Cloud Computing
If you are considering adopting cloud technologies and practices, you will receive a ton of different guidance about the benefits you might see.
Infrastructure and workloads
Many companies position the low initial costs and pay-as-you-go attributes as a very significant cost savings. Theyll note the considerable cost of building and operating data centers and argue for avoiding that to save money. Numbers can get astronomical depending on how you calculate them.
SaaS and cloud dev platforms
A software-as-a-service provider may discuss the savings from paying for application access versus purchasing off-the-shelf software. Software providers will add those “cloud attribute” benefits to the specifics of their software. Recently, there has been more discussion regarding the savings that cloud-based platforms can offer developers.
Speed and productivity
How much is it worth to your business if you can get a new application up and running in 30 hours rather than six to nine months? Likewise, the generic “staff productivity” doesn’t do justice to the capabilities that cloud dashboards, real-time statistics and active analytics can bring to reducing administration burden. How much does a person hour cost your company?
I like to think of this simply. What is the impact if you are wrong?
When the negative impact to trying new things is low, meaning that the risk is low, you will try many more things. The more you attempt, the more successes you will have.
If you asked me how to benefit from adopting cloud services, my first question would be, “Which services?” Every user and every organization is going to get a different set of benefits. The most important thing I can suggest is to think across the spectrum. Evaluate the potential savings, but also think about the soft benefits: improved productivity, more speed and lowered risk.
As hockey great Wayne Gretzky observed, you will miss 100 percent of the shots that you dont take. How much of a benefit is it to take your shot?
Benefits of cloud computing | IBM Cloud
In January 2018, RightScale conducted its seventh annual State of the Cloud Survey of the latest cloud computing trends, with a focus on infrastructure-as-a-service and platform-as-a-service.
Both public and private cloud adoption grew in 2018, with larger enterprises increasing their focus on public cloud. AWS is no longer the runaway leader as Azure has grown rapidly and is now a close second, especially among enterprise users. New to the survey this year is data on the large and growing spend on public cloud, which has driven cost optimization to the top of companies’ 2018 priority list. To gain control of growing spend, enterprise cloud teams are taking a stronger cloud governance role, including managing costs.
The State of the Cloud Survey is the largest survey on the use of cloud infrastructure thatis focused on cloud buyers and users, as opposed to cloud vendors. Their answers provide a comprehensive perspective on the state of the cloud today.
The survey asked 997 IT professionals about their adoption of cloud infrastructure and related technologies. Fifty-three percent of the respondents represented enterprises with more than 1,000 employees. The margin of error is 3.08 percent.
We highlight several key findings from the survey in this blog post. For the complete survey results, download the RightScale 2018 State of the Cloud Report.
Multi-Cloud Is the Preferred Strategy Among Enterprises
96 Percent of Respondents Use Cloud
More Enterprises Are Prioritizing Public Cloud in 2018
Organizations Leverage Almost 5 Clouds
Serverless Is the Top-Growing Extended Cloud Service
Enterprise Public Cloud Spend Is Significant and Growing Quickly
Enterprise Central IT Teams Shift Role to Governance and Brokering Cloud
Significant Wasted Cloud Spend Makes Optimizing Costs the Top Initiative
Container Use Is Up: Docker Is Used Most Broadly While Kubernetes Grows Quickly
Use of Configuration Tools Grows, with Ansible Showing Strongest Growth
Azure Continues to Grow Quickly and Reduce the AWS Lead, Especially Among Enterprises
Private Cloud Adoption Grows Across the Board
AWS Leads in Users with 50+ VMs While Azure Grows Its Footprint Faster
How AWS, Azure, Google Cloud, and IBM Cloud Stack Up Among Enterprises
In the 12 months since the last State of the Cloud Survey, a multi-cloud strategy remains the preference among enterprises even as the percentage of enterprises who use multiple clouds dropped slightly to 81 percent vs. 85 percent in 2017. Those planning a hybrid cloud strategy fell to 51 percent (from 58 percent in 2017). However, there was a slight increase in the number of enterprises are using multiple public clouds or multiple private clouds.
Both public and private cloud adoption have increased in the last year. The number of respondents now adopting public cloud is 92 percent, up from 89 percent in 2017, while the number of respondents now adopting private cloud is 75 percent, up from 72 percent in 2017. As a result, the overall portion of respondents using at least one public or private cloud is now 96 percent.
Among enterprises, the central IT team is typically tasked with assembling a hybrid portfolio of supported clouds. This year, many more enterprises see public cloud as their top priority, up from 29 percent in 2017 to 38 percent in 2018. Hybrid cloud still leads the to-do list, but has decreased as a top priority for enterprises, declining from 50 percent in 2017 to 45 percent in 2018.
Only 8 percent of enterprises are focusing on building a private cloud, and 9 percent see their top priority as using a hosted private cloud.
On average, survey respondents are using 4.8 clouds across both public and private. Respondents are already running applications in 3.1 clouds and experimenting with 1.7 more.
A significant number of public cloud users are now leveraging services beyond just the basic compute, storage, and network services. Year over year, serverless was the top-growing extended cloud service with a 75 percent increase over 2017 (12 to 21 percent adoption). Container-as-a-service was the second highest growth rate at 36 percent (14 to 19 percent adoption). DBaaS SQL and DBaaS NoSQL were third and fourth (26 and 22 percent growth rates, respectively), but achieved this growth starting from a much larger base of use, with 35 and 23 percent adoption, respectively, in 2017.
As use of public cloud has grown, so has the amount of spend. Public cloud spend is quickly becoming a significant new line item in IT budgets, especially among larger companies. Among all respondents, 13 percent spend at least $6 million annually on public cloud while 30 percent are spending at least $1.2 million per year. Among enterprises the spend is even higher, with 26 percent exceeding $6 million per year and more than half (52 percent) above $1.2 million per year.
Enterprises are not only using a lot of public cloud, but also planning to rapidly grow public cloud spend. Twenty percent of enterprises will more than double their public cloud spend in 2018, while 71 percent will grow spend at least 20 percent.
SMBs generally have fewer workloads overall and, as a result, smaller cloud bills (half spend under $120 thousand per year). However, 13 percent of SMBs still exceed $1.2 million in annual spend.
In contrast, private cloud use will grow more slowly for all sizes of organization. Only 7 percent of each group (enterprises and SMBs) is planning to double its use in 2018. Fewer than half of enterprises (47 percent) and 35 percent of SMBs plan to grow private cloud use by more than 20 percent.
As companies adopt cloud-first strategies, they are increasingly creating a centralized cloud team or a Center of Excellence for cloud. These teams provide centralized controls, tools, and best practices to help accelerate the use of cloud while reducing costs and risk.
Overall, 44 percent of companies already have a central cloud team. Enterprises have an even stronger need for centralized governance within their larger organizations: 57 percent of enterprises already have a central cloud team with another 24 percent planning one.
In 2018 we see enterprise central IT taking a stronger cloud governance role in advising on which applications move to cloud (69 percent in 2018 vs. 63 percent in 2017), managing costs (64 percent in 2018 vs. 55 percent in 2017), setting policies (60 percent in 2018 vs. 58 percent in 2017), and brokering cloud services (60 percent in 2018 vs. 54 percent in 2017).
Even though managing cloud costs is a top challenge, cloud users underestimate the amount of wasted cloud spend. Respondents estimate 30 percent waste, while RightScale has measured actual waste at 35 percent.
With significant wasted cloud spend, organizations are focusing on gaining control of costs. Optimizing cloud costs is the top initiative for the second year in a row, increasing from 53 percent of respondents in 2017 to 58 percent in 2018.
Despite an increased focus on cloud cost management, only a minority of companies have begun to implement automated policies to optimize cloud costs, such as shutting down unused workloads or selecting lower-cost cloud or regions. This represents an opportunity for increased efficiency and increased savings, since manual policies are difficult to monitor and enforce.
Docker adoption increased to 49 percent from 35 percent last year (a growth rate of 40 percent). Kubernetes, a container orchestration tool that leverages Docker, saw the fastest growth, almost doubling to reach 27 percent adoption.
Many users also choose container-as-a-service offerings from the public cloud providers.
The AWS container service (ECS/EKS) followed close behind Docker with 44 percent adoption (26 percent growth rate). Azure Container Service adoption reached 20 percent due to a strong growth of 82 percent, and Google Container Engine also grew strongly (75 percent) to reach adoption of 14 percent.
As part of adopting DevOps processes, companies often choose to implement configuration management tools that allow them to standardize and automate deployment and configuration of servers and applications. Among all respondents, Ansible and Chef are tied with 36 percent adoption each, followed by Puppet at 34 percent adoption.
Ansible showed the strongest growth since last year, up 71 percent in adoption. Chef grew 29 percent and Puppet grew 21 percent.
In 2018, AWS continues to lead in public cloud adoption, but other public clouds are growing more quickly. Azure especially is now nipping at the heels of AWS, especially in larger companies.
And 64 percent of respondents currently run applications in AWS, up from 57 percent in 2017 (12 percent growth rate).
Among enterprises, Azure did even better. Azure increased adoption significantly from 43 percent to 58 percent (35 percent growth rate) while AWS adoption in this group increased from 59 percent to 68 percent (15 percent growth rate). Among other cloud providers that were included in the survey last year, all saw increased adoption this year with Oracle growing fastest from 5 to 10 percent (100 percent growth rate), IBM Cloud from 10 to 15 percent (50 percent growth rate), and Google from 15 to 19 percent (27 percent growth rate).
Enterprise respondents with future projects (the combination of experimenting and planning to use) show the most interest in Google (41 percent).
In contrast to last years survey when we saw private cloud adoption flatten, the 2018 survey shows that adoption of private cloud increased across all providers.
Overall, VMware vSphere continues to lead with 50 percent adoption, up significantly from last year (42 percent). This includes respondents who view their vSphere environment as a private cloud whether or not it meets the accepted definition of cloud computing. OpenStack (24 percent), VMware vCloud Director (24 percent), Microsoft System Center (23 percent), and bare metal (22 percent) were all neck and neck. Azure Stack was in the sixth slot, but showed the highest percentage of respondents that were experimenting or planning to use the technology.
The cloud adoption numbers cited previously indicate the number of respondents that are running any workloads in a particular cloud. However, it is also important to look at the number of workloads or VMs that are running in each cloud. The following charts show the number of VMs being run across the top public and private clouds.
Among all respondents, 15 percent of respondents have more than 1,000+ VMs in vSphere as compared to 10 percent in AWS.
However, AWS leads in respondents with more than 50 VMs, (47 percent for AWS vs. 37 percent for VMware). In third position, Azure shows stronger growth, increasing respondents of more than 50 VMs from 21 to 29 percent.
While public cloud found its initial success in small forward-thinking organizations, over the past few years the battle has now shifted to larger enterprises. AWS has been moving quickly to address the needs of enterprises, and Microsoft has been working to bring its enterprise relationships to Azure. Google and IBM are also focusing on growing their infrastructure-as-a-service lines of business and continue to increase adoption.
The following public cloud scorecard provides a quick snapshot showing that AWS still maintains a lead among enterprises with the highest percentage adoption and largest VM footprint of the top public cloud providers. However, Azure is showing strength by growing much more quickly on already solid adoption numbers. IBM and Google are growing strongly as well but on a smaller base of users.
The 2018 State of the Cloud Survey shows that multi-cloud remains the preferred strategy. Almost every organization is using cloud at some level, with both public and private cloud adoption growing. On average, companies using or experimenting with nearly five public and private clouds with a majority of workloads now running in cloud.
However, public cloud is increasingly becoming the top focus among enterprises and, as a result, public cloud use is growing more quickly with the addition of new customers, an increase in workloads, and an increase in the number of services used.
This expansion in cloud use is driving public cloud spend higher, with large increases expected in 2018. Cost was the number one cloud challenge for intermediate and advanced cloud users. As a result, spend continues to be the top initiative for 2018 as even more organizations are turning their efforts to cost optimization efforts. There is still much room for improvement as 35 percent of cloud bills are wasted due to inefficiencies, and few organizations have yet implemented automated policies to help address these issues.
Enterprise central IT teams are taking a stronger role in cloud adoption, creating central cloud teams or a Center of Excellence. The role of these central teams is focused on cost management and governance as well as advising business units on workloads that should move to cloud. However, business units seek stronger autonomy, except in the area of cost optimization where they look to the central IT team for assistance.
The use of DevOps continues to increase, driving further adoption of container and configuration tools. Docker grew strongly again this year, and Kubernetes showed even stronger growth as a container orchestration solution. Many users are also adopting container-as-a-service offerings from AWS, Azure, and Google.
AWS still leads in public cloud adoption but Azure continues to grow more quickly and gains ground, especially with enterprise customers. Among enterprise cloud beginners, Azure is slightly ahead of AWS. Google maintains the third position, and VMware Cloud on AWS did well in its first year of availability. Adoption of Oracle Cloud is still small, but is growing well in the enterprise.
Cloud provider revenue is driven not just by adoption (percentage of companies using the cloud), but also the number of workloads (VMs) deployed, and the use of other extended cloud services.
Respondents continue to run more VMs in AWS than in other public clouds. However, Azure is growing quickly here as well to reduce AWSs lead.
VMware vSphere continues to lead as a private cloud option (both in adoption and number of VMs) followed by VMware vCloud Director. OpenStack is third, but Azure Pack (sixth place). stands out with the strongest interest level.
Download the RightScale 2018 State of the Cloud Report for the complete survey results.
Use of Charts and Data In This Report
We encourage the re-use of data, charts, and text published in this report under the terms of this Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. You are free to share and make commercial use of this work as long as you attribute the RightScale 2018 State of the Cloud Report as stipulated in the terms of the license.
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Cloud Computing Trends: 2018 State of the Cloud Survey
– [Instructor] Before we can begin to explore the cloud including strategies for migrating to the cloud, and cloud tools to consider, we should understand what the cloud really is, so let’s begin with a quick overview of the cloud, then what cloud computing means. The label cloud computing is really a metaphor for the internet. If you’ve ever looked at a network diagram, the internet portion of that network is typically represented by a cloud graphic. Also important to consider, the cloud in a diagram like this will typically represent the part of the solution that is someone else’s concern, and that is what cloud computing’s all about. By leaving a good chunk of the networking solution in someone else’s hands, a person or a business can cut operational costs dramatically while allowing them or their IT departments to concentrate on strategy as opposed to maintaining the data center. But these days it would be overly simplistic to equate cloud computing to the internet. A person or a business might choose to access applications that reside at a location other than their own computers or servers. Think Microsoft Office for example. This would eliminate the need to install applications locally on every computer at home or at the office, and when an update or even upgrade becomes available, there’s no work to be done at your end, because someone else is hosting those applications and the updates are completed by them, not you. They handle it all including the cost of the servers that host those applications. Of course data storage has become a big piece in the cloud computing puzzle as well. With some or all of your data stored in the cloud, you can cut capital expenditures since you won’t need to buy the equipment needed to store everything. Think of all those photos on your tablet as a personal example. And, one of the biggest advantages to the cloud is the ability to access your applications, and your data from anywhere, on any device that connects to the internet. Users simply login from wherever they are to use their applications, and access their data. No more copying files and transferring them to multiple devices. This is great for sharing and collaborating on files too. Of course with anything IT-related, there are also going to be cons and that goes for cloud computing too, and internet outage can be an issue in cloud computing, cutting off access to your applications and data, preventing you from getting your work done. Sometimes the problem can be with the site you’re accessing. If they’re having issues, and it does happen, you’re once again out of luck trying to get at your applications and your data. Might be rare, but it’s a real possibility to consider, and in some scenarios if your company deals with sensitive or proprietary data, it may be necessary to store that data or run that application locally or internally, and not on someone else’s machines. Healthcare organizations come to mind, in the sense of the patient data they deal with. So that’s a high-level look at cloud computing, including some of the pros and cons. In most business scenarios, you will see cloud computing as an important piece of an overall networking strategy, and not the only solution.
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What is cloud computing? – LinkedIn
Cloud computing is a popular buzz-phrase on the internet, with a Google search revealing 103 million occurrences of the term. Cloud computing refers to delivering on-demand computing services, originally storage, and now more recently processing power and apps, over the internet, with companies using this on a pay-as-you-go basis. The ‘cloud’ in cloud computing has its origins in network diagrams that draw the internet as a fluffy cloud.
Despite the modern popularity of cloud computing, the notion of computing over a network goes some decades back to 1961. An MIT professor, John McCarthy, considered a founding father of artificial intelligence, in an address at their centennial celebration prophetically spoke: Computing may someday be organized as a public utility just as the telephone system is a public utility. Each subscriber needs to pay only for the capacity he actually uses, but he has access to all programming languages characteristic of a very large system Certain subscribers might offer service to other subscribers The computer utility could become the basis of a new and important industry.
The first use of the actual term cloud computing is more modern dating to August 9th, 2006 at the Search Engine Strategies Conference. It is credited to Google CEO Eric Schmidt who said: What’s interesting [now] is that there is an emergent new model…. It starts with the premise that the data services and architecture should be on servers. We call it cloud computing they should be in a ‘cloud’ somewhere. And that if you have the right kind of browser or the right kind of access, it doesn’t matter whether you have a PC or a Mac or a mobile phone or a BlackBerry or what have you or new devices still to be developed you can get access to the cloud.
For over a decade ago, these words are quite visionary- except the part about BlackBerry, although not surprising in retrospect that Googles Android mobile platform debuted just over a year later, which for sure has contributed to the popularity of cloud computing.
Cloud computing does simplify things for companies. The burden of owning your own data center and company infrastructure is gone. Rather, the company can then rent the applications, processing power, and storage they need from their cloud service provider. Costs at the front end are reduced, and the company only pays for what they actually need and use, with the ability for it to grow as needed, on demand. Also, the maintenance and updates are all done by the cloud service provider, reducing the tasks for in house IT.
The first half of cloud computing is the cloud. While the cloud is not local to the computer, there is some variation to where it is located. For example, there is the term public cloud where the company is not responsible for the upkeep of the server.
Its counterpoint is private cloud, where the company takes on the maintenance, and is physically at the location, known as on-premises cloud, or more remote at a data center. Private cloud is often used for more data sensitive applications to maintain control of the data for a higher level of security.
A popular solution today combines aspects of a private cloud with a public cloud, gaining advantages of distributing the workloads for optimal performance, which is known as a hybrid cloud solution. There is also the variant of a community cloud where multiple organizations create and maintain their own cloud solution in a collaborative effort.
The other half of cloud computing is the computing part, and these days just about any application that does not have the requirement that you need to be in close physical proximity to the computing hardware is amenable to cloud computing.
These cloud computing applications get placed into several categories. A popular one is SaaS, which is known as Software-as-a-Service. Other variants of cloud computing applications include PaaS (Platform-as-a-Service), and IaaS (Infrastructure-as-a-Service).
A popular example of SaaS is the Microsoft Office 365 suite. Rather than run the program locally, Office 365 is sold as a subscription. For the price of $9.99/month, all the Microsoft Office applications are included. Advantages include that the software, as it is hosted on their server, is continuously kept up to date, and documents are backed up to the cloud for reliable storage, and ease of sharing. Other popular examples of SaaS include Adobe Creative Cloud, Slack, DocuSign and Salesforce.com.
PaaS is the second type of cloud-based computing platform, complete with an operating system, a programming language execution environment, as well as a database.
A popular example of a PaaS is Microsoft Azure, which is used by top organizations including Toyota, UPS and Coca-Cola – in fact Microsoft claims that 90% of Fortune 500 companies use it. The hosting is done across 54 Azure datacenter regions available in 140 countries.
Folks use Microsoft Azure for a variety of diverse projects, including management of SQL relational databases, cloud-based Microsoft or Linux based virtual machines, and cloud based web apps via Microsoft Azure WebApps. Other examples of PaaS include IBM SmartCloud, the open source RedHat OpenShift, the Google App engine, and Java-based CloudBees.
The third main category of cloud computing is Infrastructure-as-a-Service (IaaS). In this variant, the goal is to provide virtualized computing resources through the internet, with the cloud provider hosting a full suite of infrastructure services, including servers, storage, and networking, and a virtualization layer- in essence everything that would be required at an onsite data center.
IaaS provides essential services such as security, log access, monitoring services, and storage resiliency to provide a more robust offering than if it was hosted locally, with a turnkey solution.
There are many examples of IaaS, with popular ones including Amazon Web Services, Rackspace Open Cloud, Google Compute Engine, and Apache CloudStack. In fact, Amazon Web Services is so popular, that last year all of the entire companies operating income was derived from their cloud offering.
With the power of shared resources in the cloud, whether for software, as a platform, or an entire infrastructure, it is no wonder that cloud computing has enjoyed such large popularity.
For all indications it really looks like when it comes to the future of cloud computing, the sky’s the limit.
What is cloud computing? | TechRadar
Cloud Computing Recent Articles
Oracle Identity Cloud Service: AD Bridge High-Availability Configuration Using Docker and Windows Containers [October 2017]by Ricardo GutierrezPart of the IDCS Deep Dive series exploring hybrid scenarios, this article focuses on integration with Microsoft Active Directory, an on-premise infrastructure present in most organizations.
Introduction to Oracle Messaging Cloud Service [August 2017]by Phil Wilkins This article examines the Oracle Messaging Cloud Service (OCMS) web API that sits over that messaging engine, and also looks at the cool moves OMCS can throw that give messaging a 21st century shine.
Oracle Java Cloud Service, Oracle JET and ADF BC REST Production Experience – Technical Tips and Tricks [May 2017]by Andrejus Baranovskis Oracle ACE Director Andrejus Baranovskis and his team recently used Oracle Java Cloud Service, Oracle JET, and ADF BC REST to develop an application for a Lithuanian start-up. This article describes the development experience in deep technical detail.
Sample Chapter: Integrations Between SaaS Applications [April 2017]by Robert van Molken and Phil WilkinsThis sample chapter from Implementing Oracle Integration Cloud Service (2017, Packt Publishing) explores how to integrate SaaS solutions, and shows how you can test your integration without affecting a live system.
Docker in the Cloud: Oracle Container Cloud Service [Feb 2017]by Dr. Frank MunzGet deep background on Docker and its use, and a technical introduction to the Oracle Container Cloud Service (OCCS) and its key components.
Oracle Cloud Integration [February 2016]by Joel Perez and Arturo ViverosThis four-part series by Oracle ACE Director Joel Perez and Oracle ACE Associate Arturo Viveros focuses on cloud integration and is directed towards IT managers and architects, particularly those who are hungry for knowledge related to cloud solutions and the dynamics involved when attempting to integrate them effectively into established business architectures.
SOA Cloud Service in a Nutshell [February 2016]by Arturo Viveros, Robert van Molken, and Rolando CarrascoIn this article Oracle ACE Associates Arturo Viveros and Robert van Molken, and Oracle ACE Rolando Carraso discuss Oracle SOA Cloud Service in detail, together with its implications, possible use cases and scenarios. The authors also attempt to clarify some potentially confusing elements and draw some first-hand conclusions on the present and future of the product.
Building and Testing Databound Web Applications using JCS, DCS and JDeveloper 12c [October 2015]by Kumar ShahiThis article showcases the simplicity of using Oracle Java Cloud Service (JCS), Oracle Database Cloud Service (DCS) and JDeveloper 12c to develop, deploy and test Web Applications.
Sample Chapter: CIO’s Guide to Oracle Cloud Computing (August 2014]by Jessica KeyesThis sample chapter from The CIO’s Guide to Oracle Products and Solutions focuses on “features and benefits; management best practices; user/developer lessons learned; management considerations; compliance and security considerations, and management metrics.”
Sample Chapter: eCommerce in the Cloud [April 2014]by Kelly GoetscheCommerce in the Cloud author Kelly Goetsch shows you “how you can quickly and incrementally adopt cloud computing for any ecommerce platforms, whether packaged or custom, new or legacy.”
SOA and Cloud Computing [April 2014]by Jrgen Kress, Berthold Maier, Hajo Normann, Danilo Schmeidel, Guido Schmutz, Bernd Trops, Clemens Utschig-Utschig, Torsten WinterbergThe final article in the Industrial SOA article series takes a look at the relationship between SOA and Cloud Computing, and offers insight into how SOA principles can help to insure the long-term success and business value of the migration to the Cloud.
SOA, Cloud, and Service Technologies [August 2012]Best selling SOA author Thomas Erl and Oracle SOA experts Tim Hall and Demed L’Her explore the evolution of IT architecture and the emerging role of the IT architect in this edited transcript of an OTN ArchBeat podcast.
The Role of the Cloud Architect [July 2012]by Bob Rhubart Cloud architects talk about the role’s unique challenges and the skills needed to meet them.
Software Architecture for High Availability in the Cloud [June 2012]by Brian JimersonA look at the paradigm shifts in designing fault tolerance from machine-based architectures to cloud-based architectures, and how enterprise applications need to be engineered to ensure the highest level of availability in the cloud.
Discussion: Public, Private, and Hybrid Clouds [June 2012]by Bob RhubartA panel of leading Oracle experts on cloud computing compares and contrasts the various flavors of cloud computing in this transcript of an OTN ArchBeat Podcast.
Community Roundtable: Agility versus Architecture [May 2012]by Bob RhubartWhat happens to architecture in the rush to deliver solutions? A community panel discusses finding a balance.
Community Roundtable: Architecture, Confidence, and the Cloud [May 2012]by Bob RhubartCloud computing may be a new take on not-so-new concepts, but getting it right still requires an architectural approach.
Are You Ready to Compete Against the Public Cloud? [January 2012]by Robert Covington and Brad GoodwinA look at two companies that have embarked on a transformational journey that embraces many core aspects of cloud architecture.
Everything is PaaSible (from InfoQ) [December 2011]by William VambenepeWilliam Vambenepe takes a look at PaaS as an enabler especially in the enterprisethat will afford business advantages in terms of cost, time to market and choice of tools.
Using Oracle Coherence with Spring Batch for High-Performance Data Processing [December 2011]by Vijay NairHow using the Spring Batch framework, in combination with a multithreaded approach to data loading, can improve the manageability and performance Coherence-based applications
A Brief Introduction on Migrating to an Oracle-based Cloud Environment (from Syngress) [November 2011] by Tom LaszewskiAddressing multi-tenancy and other key cloud considerations.
Migrating to the Cloud: Methodology and Design [Sept 2011]by Tom Laszewski and Prakash NauduriA sample chapter from Migrating to the Cloud.
The Cloud Computing Pre-Nup [May 2011]by Bob RhubartThe cloud represents a relationship. Know how to get out before you jump in.
More Cloud Computing articles…
Simplifying Cloud Integration [January 2014]by David Baum, Rajesh Raheja, Bruce Tierney, Ram Menon, and Vijay PawaThis white paper describes the role Oracle SOA Suite and Oracle data integration products can play in integrating on-premise and cloud applications, such as Oracle Fusion Applications, Salesforce.com, and Workday.
Accelerate the Journey to Enterprise Cloud with Oracle Database 12c [July 2013]by Burt ClouseThis paper examines the new features in Oracle Database 12c and how those features can accelerate the implementation of an enterprise cloud.
Consolidation Best Practices: Oracle Database 12c [July 2013]by Troy AnthonyThis paper provides and overview of Oracle Database 12c’s capabilities for consolidating application workloads.
Service Catalogs: Defining Standardized Database Services [November 2013]by Burt ClouseThe first step in the transition from silod, purpose-built IT practices to a modern cloud is standardization. The key deliverable that supports standardization is a service catalog. This paper explores service catalogs and how they create and enforce effective standardization.
Enterprise Cloud Infrastructure on SPARC: An Oracle Optimized Solution [June 2012]by Roger BitarRecommendations and best practices for optimizing virtualization infrastructures when deploying the Oracle Optimized Solution for Enterprise Cloud Infrastructure on SPARC.
Network Isolation in Private Database Clouds [April 2012]This white paper focuses on the options and features that can be used to provide network isolation in an Oracle Private Database Cloud configuration.
Candidate Selection Tool: Guiding Cloud Adoption [Dec. 2011]by Bob HensleThis white paper describes an evaluation framework created to help IT organizations determine which applications, services, modules, components, etc., are appropriate for deployment to a public or private cloud.
Cloud Computing Maturity Model: Guiding Success with Cloud Capabilities [Dec. 2011]by Scott Mattoon, Bob Hensle, and James BatySuccessful adoption of a Cloud model depends on careful planning that addresses the full range of capabilities implied by a comprehensive Cloud Computing strategy.
Database as a Service – Reference Architecture Overview [Sept. 2011]This white paper introduces and defines the concept of Database as a Service and elaborates on the benefits of implementing a DBaaS strategy.
Advancing Business Innovation through the Cloud [June 2011]by Saugatuck TechnologyWinners in the new competitive landscape will be those businesses that adopt Cloud solutions to fundamentally change their business models, not simply to improve the efficiency of IT.
Oracle Optimized Solution for Enterprise Cloud Infrastructure [May 2011]This paper provides recommendations and best practices for optimizing virtualization infrastructures when deploying the Oracle Enterprise Cloud Infrastructure.
More Cloud Computing white papers…