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Efficiencies and Cost Savings Realized by Cloud Computing …

Companies have built business plans by setting their sights on virtualizing, over time, all layers of their architecture for a premium benefit. Virtualizing resources, even if you do it over time, can create unprecedented cost savings and flexibility. It is also the reason why virtualization is a preliminary technology for Cloud computing.

Organizations taking advantage of these premium benefits are seeing real cost savings and efficiency results. Server savings have reached upwards of 70% of their total cost. The hardware costs have been reported to be reduced up to 70%, and maintenance costs reduced up to 50%. In regards to servers, you can see operation go anywhere between 10-30% all the way up to 65-70%. There is also a possibility of up to 30% in increased storage operation. You will also see a 25% annual reduction in acquiring new storage capacity. Adherently, there is an optimistic environmental financial impact in heating and cooling. Based on the specific infrastructure size, complexity and maturity results will vary, but these are strategies for companies to think about as they consider virtualizing their infrastructure.

Leveraging Virtualization To Deliver Cost Savings And Flexibility

There are three primary uses regarding virtualization. First, create a single point for the purpose of consolidation and simplification. Second, unify separate resources to operate together as a single resource. Third, dynamically adjust the resource allocation to optimize the infrastructure you may already have. It is widely recommended that companies choose consolidation efforts that make the most sense for their own infrastructure. Most companies that are at least doing server consolidation have started to concentrate on storage optimization. Technology consultants typically advise IT organizations to not only focus on their existing environment and servers that are in their infrastructure, but also look at targeted environments where the consolidation will happen.

Many companies start by considering not to involve any migration. This reduces the need for planning to be done on the target environment. This type of consolidation is beneficial, but it is also suggested that companies consider a cross-pollination approach. This approach provides an enhanced quality of service for the actual workload thats going to be placed on the organizations servers.

Challenges Companies Face To Virtualize Their Environment

While cloud computing is not a new concept for some companies, a large number of organizations, large and small, have not been versed in this type of technology. Many companies are seeing the huge potential data center virtualization services can offer, but they tend to struggle with concerns of not being able effectively implement and manage their virtualized environment. Also, not all workloads work well in a virtualized environment, so again, you have to strategize effectively so that problems will not occur in your infrastructure.

Information security and reliability is a major issue due to the ubiquitous presence of data in the daily lives of people in the emerging global economy. Data is quickly becoming extremely precious and sensitive, ranging from financial information, personal identifiers, and customer relationship management. Staying on the cutting edge of the latest reliability and security methods can be a major strain on an existing IT department.

Realize The Full Potential And Benefits Of Cloud Computing

To accelerate a systems virtualization infrastructure and discover the full potential and many benefits, target a company that specializes in consolidation and virtualization solutions. Make sure that they match your existing and new requirements for the right platform and optimize your infrastructure for both efficiency and performance. There are many technology companies that will give you examples of how they have witnessed and achieved great benefits from putting into place a strategic data center virtualization strategy and realized a huge return on investment.

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Cloud Computing Bachelor’s Degree Program | Virtualization

Cloud computing or software services provided across the internet are ushering in a wave of new opportunities to help businesses become more flexible, efficient and agile. By providing infrastructures, platforms and software as a service, cloud computing allows users to access and implement important business and technology tools whenever and wherever they need.

Whats more, the Cloud or internet services are creating demand for professionals to manage these vast networks. According to the U.S. Department of Labor, employment of network and computer systems administrators is expected to grow 8% percent from 2014 to 2024, faster than the average for all occupations, and demand for these workers is high and should continue to grow as firms invest in newer, faster technology and mobile networks.*

If youre interested in pursuing a career in the emerging field of Cloud Computing, consider ECPI University. Through ECPIs accelerated schedule, you can earn a Bachelor of Science Degree in Computer and Information Science with a concentration in Cloud Computing in just 2.5 years.

* Bureau of Labor Statistics, U.S. Department of Labor,Occupational Outlook Handbook, 2016-17 Edition

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Ebitz cryptocurrency

Zerocash transactions

Zerocashs functionality is realized using just two new types of transactions: mint transactions and pour transactions. Like Bitcoin transactions, Zerocash transactions are broadcast and appended to a decentralized ledger.

Mint transactions. A mint transaction allows a user to convert a specified number of non-anonymous bitcoins (from some Bitcoin address) into the same number of zerocoins belonging to a specified Zerocash address. The mint transaction itself consists of a cryptographic commitment to a new coin, which specifies the coins value, owner address, and (unique) serial number. The commitment is based on the SHA-256 hash function, and hides both the coins value and owner address.

Individual Zerocash nodes maintain a Merkle tree over all of the coin commitments seen thus far. Any user can then demonstrate ownership of a coin commitment, via its decommitted values as well as a short witness of membership in the tree. Unfortunately, merely publishing this information as an ownership proof is not private; instead, to achieve privacy, we rely on a second type of transaction, which allows a user to prove, in zero knowledge, that he knows such information.

Pour transactions. A pour transaction allows a user to make a private payment, by consuming some number of coins (owned by this user) in order to produce new coins. Roughly, a pour transaction, for (up to) two input coins and (up to) two output coins, involves proving, in zero knowledge, that:

The pour transaction consumes the input coins by revealing their serial numbers, but does not reveal any other information such as the values of the input or output coins, or the addresses of their owners. Optionally, the pour transaction can also output some (non-anoymous) bitcoins. This last feature can be used to transfer zerocoins back into (non-anonymous) bitcoins or to pay transaction fees.

For a mint transaction, the commitment contained therein is constructed so that that anyone can verify that the committed coin has the claimed value.

For a pour transaction, anyone can verify that the zero-knowledge proof contained therein is valid (and that a few other simple invariants hold). For efficiency, however, Zerocash does not use any zero-knowledge proof, but leverages zero-knowledge Succinct Non-interactive ARguments of Knowledge (zk-SNARK) systems, which are zero-knowledge proofs that are particularly short and easy to verify.

Ebitz is a clone of Zcash without founder rewards and changing his algo. We are going to collect funds in another way, giving an opportunity to all investors in an open pre-sale, not in shady close doors ICO. And we are going to change the algo to PoS to prevent the control by a few centralized GPU farms. Its a Zerocash implementation with more fair use and organization for the crypto community. We are going to port all the updates from Zcash to Ebitz. With the funds collected we expect to add some new features to Ebitz, that they are not included in Zcash right now. We dont want to collect a big amount of money with Ebitz (we dont need it), so we are thinking to put a limit to the open pre-sale.

Whitepaper 1

Whitepaper 2

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Streaming Services | Dedicated Servers | Cloud – Server Room

Bare Metal servers HP & Dell Dedicated Servers

Quality matters, which is why choose HP and Dell hardware. We deliver only managed Dedicated Servers with Enterprise Level parts. Pair that with our 24×7 live customer happiness team and you have the perfect harmony for managed services, which allows us to provide a 99.9% SLA.

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Stream your audio content to any device, locally or GLOBALLY! Get flawless streaming to any platform, no matter if you count your listeners by the tens or by the thousands. We’re among the first streaming providers to offer internet radio hosting, so there’s plenty of expertise to meet any expectations.

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“Our listeners from around the world can easily follow us. And live event streaming has been improved greatly with the system we use via your streaming services.”

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Advantages and Disadvantages of Cloud Computing

Advantages and Disadvantages of Cloud Computing Sean Gallup/Getty Images News/Getty Images

Updated November 07, 2015

Cloud computing is now evolving like never before, with companies of all shapes and sizes adapting to this new technology. Industry experts believe that this trend will only continue to grow and develop even further in the coming few years. While cloud computing is undoubtedly beneficial for mid-size to large companies, it is not without its downsides, especially for smaller businesses. We now bring you a list of advantages of disadvantages of cloud computing, with a view to helping such establishments fully understand the concept of cloud computing.

Saas, Paas and IaaS in the Mobile Industry

If used properly and to the extent necessary, working with data in the cloud can vastly benefit all types of businesses. Mentioned below are some of the advantages of this technology:

Why Cloud Computing Is Ideal for Small Businesses

In spite of its many benefits, as mentioned above, cloud computing also has its disadvantages. Businesses, especially smaller ones, need to be aware of these cons before going in for this technology.

Like everything else, cloud computing too has its pros and cons. While the technology can prove to be a great asset to your company, it could also cause harm if not understood and used properly.

Cloud Computing and Security: What Enterprises Should Know

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Understanding the Cloud Computing Stack: SaaS, PaaS, IaaS

Understanding the Cloud Computing Stack: SaaS, PaaS, IaaS Executive Summary

Cloud Computingis a broad term that describes a broad range of services. As with other significant developments in technology, many vendors have seized the term Cloud and are using it for products that sit outside of the common definition. In order to truly understand how the Cloud can be of value to an organization, it is first important to understand what the Cloud really is and its different components. Since the Cloud is a broad collection of services, organizations can choose where, when, and how they use Cloud Computing. In this report we will explain the different types of Cloud Computing services commonly referred to as Software as a Service (SaaS), Platform as a Service (PaaS) and Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS) and give some examples and case studies to illustrate how they all work. We will also provide some guidance on situations where particular flavors of Cloud Computing are not the best option for an organization.

Cloud Computing is often described as a stack, as a response to the broad range of services built on top of one another under the moniker Cloud. The generally accepted definition of Cloud Computing comes from the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) [1]. The NIST definition runs to several hundred words [2] but essentially says that; Cloud computing is a model for enabling convenient, on-demand network access to a shared pool of configurable computing resources (e.g., networks, servers, storage, applications, and services) that can be rapidly provisioned and released with minimal management effort or service provider interaction.

What this means in plain terms is the ability for end users to utilize parts of bulk resources and that these resources can be acquired quickly and easily.

NIST also offers up several characteristics that it sees as essential for a service to be considered Cloud. These characteristics include;

On-demand self-service. The ability for an end user to sign up and receive services without the long delays that have characterized traditional IT Broad network access. Ability to access the service via standard platforms (desktop, laptop, mobile etc) Resource pooling. Resources are pooled across multiple customers [3] Rapid elasticity. Capability can scale to cope with demand peaks [4] Measured Service. Billing is metered and delivered as a utility service [5]

More than a semantic argument around categorization, we believe that in order to maximize the benefits that Cloud Computing brings, a solution needs to demonstrate these particular characteristics. This is especially true since in recent years there has been a move by traditional software vendors to market solutions as Cloud Computing which are generally accepted to not fall within the definition of true Cloud Computing, a practice known as cloud-washing.

The diagram below depicts the Cloud Computing stack it shows three distinct categories within Cloud Computing: Software as a Service, Platform as a Service and Infrastructure as a Service.

In this report we look at all three categories in detail however a very simplified way of differentiating these flavors of Cloud Computing is as follows;

SaaS applications are designed for end-users, delivered over the web PaaS is the set of tools and services designed to make coding and deploying those applications quick and efficient IaaS is the hardware and software that powers it all servers, storage, networks, operating systems

To help understand how these 3 components are related, some have used a transportation analogy;

By itself, infrastructure isnt useful – it just sits there waiting for someone to make it productive in solving a particular problem. Imagine the Interstate transportation system in the U.S. Even with all these roads built, they wouldnt be useful without cars and trucks to transport people and goods. In this analogy, the roads are the infrastructure and the cars and trucks are the platform that sits on top of the infrastructure and transports the people and goods. These goods and people might be considered the software and information in the technical realm. [6]

It is important to note that while for illustration purposes this whitepaper draws a clear distinction between SaaS, PaaS and IaaS, the differences between these categories of cloud computing, especially PaaS and IaaS, have blurred in recent months and will continue to do so.[7] Nevertheless, with a general understanding of how these components interact with each other, we will turn our attention in more detail to the top layer of the stack, SaaS.

Software as a Service (SaaS) is defined as [8];

software that is deployed over the internet With SaaS, a provider licenses an application to customers either as a service on demand, through a subscription, in a pay-as-you-go model, or (increasingly) at no charge when there is opportunity to generate revenue from streams other than the user, such as from advertisement or user list sales SaaS is a rapidly growing market as indicated in recent reports that predict ongoing double digit growth [9]. This rapid growth indicates that SaaS will soon become commonplace within every organization and hence it is important that buyers and users of technology understand what SaaS is and where it is suitable.

Characteristics of SaaS

Like other forms of Cloud Computing, it is important to ensure that solutions sold as SaaS in fact comply with generally accepted definitions of Cloud Computing. Some defining characteristics of SaaS include;

Web access to commercial software Software is managed from a central location Software delivered in a one to many model Users not required to handle software upgrades and patches Application Programming Interfaces (APIs) allow for integration between different pieces of software

Where SaaS Makes Sense

Cloud Computing generally, and SaaS in particular, is a rapidly growing method of delivering technology. That said, organizations considering a move to the cloud will want to consider which applications they move to SaaS. As such there are particular solutions we consider prime candidate for an initial move to SaaS;

Vanilla offerings where the solution is largely undifferentiated. A good example of a vanilla offering would include email where many times competitors use the same software precisely because this fundamental technology is a requirement for doing business, but does not itself confer an competitive advantage Applications where there is significant interplay between the organization and the outside world. For example, email newsletter campaign software Applications that have a significant need for web or mobile access. An example would be mobile sales management software Software that is only to be used for a short term need. An example would be collaboration software for a specific project Software where demand spikes significantly, for example tax or billing software used once a month

SaaS is widely accepted to have been introduced to the business world by the Salesforce [10] Customer Relationship Management (CRM) product. As one of the earliest entrants it is not surprising that CRM is the most popular SaaS application area [11], however e-mail, financial management, customer service and expense management have also gotten good uptake via SaaS.

Where SaaS May Not be the Best Option

While SaaS is a very valuable tool, there are certain situations where we believe it is not the best option for software delivery. Examples where SaaS may not be appropriate include;

Applications where extremely fast processing of real time data is required Applications where legislation or other regulation does not permit data being hosted externally Applications where an existing on-premise solution fulfills all of the organizations needs

Software as a Service may be the best known aspect of Cloud Computing, but developers and organizations all around the world are leveraging Platform as a Service, which mixes the simplicity of SaaS with the power of IaaS, to great effect.

Launched in November 2008, Groupon [13] features a daily deal on the best stuff to do, see, eat and buy in more than 500 markets and 40 countries. The company has thousands of employees spread across its Chicago and Palo Alto offices, regional offices in Europe, Latin America, Asia and Africa with local account executives stationed in many cities. Groupon seeks to sell only quality products and services, be honest and direct with customers, and provide exceptional customer service.

Within a few months of our founding, our customer base exploded, says Joe Harrow, Director of Customer Service, Groupon. At first, I was spending 10 percent of my time responding to customer requests. It gradually became a job for several agents. We realized we simply couldnt go on without a real ticketing solution.

Convinced that Groupons rapid growth would continue, Harrow researched several enterprise-level support solutions. But he didnt find a good fit.

The enterprise-level solutions seemed complicated and difficult to set up, Harrow recalls. They would have increased our efficiency, but at the cost of hampering the customer experience. Harrow then searched the web for online support software and found Zendesk [14]. After a quick evaluation of Zendesk, Harrow knew he had the right solution. Right off the bat, Zendesk was intuitive to use, Harrow says. It seemed more powerful and robust than other online support solutions, and it had been rated very highly in reviews wed read. Plus, we knew that because it was a web-based solution, it could easily scale to support our increasing volume.

Groupon now employs more than 150 customer support agents, who handle nearly 15,000 tickets per day. Zendesks macros, which are predefined answers to FAQs, are Groupons favorite Zendesk feature. These macros help Groupon train its agents to deliver one of the companys customer service hallmarks: one-touch resolution.

Groupon has also found it easy to integrate Zendesk with other solutions. By integrating Zendesk with GoodData, Groupon has extended and enhanced its reporting going well beyond the limits of its old spreadsheets. As an example of the sort of scalability that SaaS brings, Groupon recently processed its millionth customer ticket [15].

Platform as a Service (PaaS) brings the benefits that SaaS bought for applications, but over to the software development world. PaaS can be defined as a computing platform that allows the creation of web applications quickly and easily and without the complexity of buying and maintaining the software and infrastructure underneath it.

PaaS is analogous to SaaS except that, rather than being software delivered over the web, it is a platform for the creation of software, delivered over the web.

Characteristics of PaaS

There are a number of different takes on what constitutes PaaS but some basic characteristics include [16];

Services to develop, test, deploy, host and maintain applications in the same integrated development environment. All the varying services needed to fulfil the application development process Web based user interface creation tools help to create, modify, test and deploy different UI scenarios Multi-tenant architecture where multiple concurrent users utilize the same development application Built in scalability of deployed software including load balancing and failover Integration with web services and databases via common standards Support for development team collaboration some PaaS solutions include project planning and communication tools Tools to handle billing and subscription management

PaaS, which is similar in many ways to Infrastructure as a Service that will be discussed below, is differentiated from IaaS by the addition of value added services and comes in two distinct flavours;

1. A collaborative platform for software development, focused on workflow management regardless of the data source being used for the application. An example of this approach would be Heroku, a PaaS that utilizes the Ruby on Rails development language. 2. A platform that allows for the creation of software utilizing proprietary data from an application. This sort of PaaS can be seen as a method to create applications with a common data form or type. An example of this sort of platform would be the PaaS from which is used almost exclusively to develop applications that work with the CRM

Where PaaS Makes Sense

PaaS is especially useful in any situation where multiple developers will be working on a development project or where other external parties need to interact with the development process. As the case study below illustrates, it is proving invaluable for those who have an existing data source for example sales information from a customer relationship management tool, and want to create applications which leverage that data. Finally PaaS is useful where developers wish to automate testing and deployment services.

The popularity of agile software development, a group of software development methodologies based on iterative and incremental development, will also increase the uptake of PaaS as it eases the difficulties around rapid development and iteration of software.

Some examples of PaaS include Google App Engine [17], Microsoft Azure Services [18], and the [19] platform.

Where PaaS May Not be the Best Option

We contend that PaaS will become the predominant approach towards software development. The ability to automate processes, use pre-defined components and building blocks and deploy automatically to production will provide sufficient value to be highly persuasive. That said, there are certain situations where PaaS may not be ideal, examples include;

Where the application needs to be highly portable in terms of where it is hosted Where proprietary languages or approaches would impact on the development process Where a proprietary language would hinder later moves to another provider concerns are raised about vendor lock-in [20] Where application performance requires customization of the underlying hardware and software

Menumate [21] is a provider of point of sale hardware and software for the hospitality industry across Australasia. Menumate has taken advantage of the PaaS to migrate over time a series of legacy applications used in the business.

Daniel Fowlie and Abhinav Keswani are Directors of development house Trineo [22] the company responsible for boutique development for Menumate. Fowlie explains that the use of the platform has allowed Menumate to centralise, modernise and integrate an otherwise disparate in-house software toolkit.

Keswani feels that a more conventional development approach would require significant infrastructure, connectivity, security and would introduce uptime considerations – whereas the platform inherently provides these non-functional requirements – allowing Menumate and Trineo to focus purely on developing the needed functionality. Additionally, utilizing a PaaS approach has meant Trineo could take advantage of both existing integrations and automated deployment tools – another example of PaaS easing the development process.

Using PaaS, Trineo have been able to migrate over time a series of legacy applications used in the business. Some of these applications are:

License Key Generation- The Menumate software uses license keys to activate the features that the customer has paid for. The power of the PaaS programming language allowed Menumate to quickly port this code to where the license keys are linked to the customer record in the CRM. This allows Sales and Support staff to quickly see the status of licenses.

Enhanced Case Management- A lot of the support cases Menumate were dealing with were orders for consumables. To handle this they had a separate DOS based application that would allow the user to build up an order and create an invoice. Menumate now can add products to a support case and automatically send an invoice to their accounting software using an existing integration product.

Label Printing- Another legacy application was for creating freight labels for sending consumables and hardware to customers. Utilising the PaaS technology, these can now be printed directly from the customer record.

Utilizing a PaaS development environment has resulted in the creation of these applications being significantly faster than would otherwise be the case. In some examples, in the absence of PaaS, the cost of developing the application would have been prohibitive.

PaaS is undoubtedly an exciting and powerful form of Cloud Computing however in terms of market awareness its hard to look past Infrastructure as a Service and the rapid growth its seeing in the marketplace.

Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS) is a way of delivering Cloud Computing infrastructure servers, storage, network and operating systems as an on-demand service. Rather than purchasing servers, software, datacenter space or network equipment, clients instead buy those resources as a fully outsourced service on demand [23].

As we detailed in a previous whitepaper [24], within IaaS, there are some sub-categories that are worth noting. Generally IaaS can be obtained as public or private infrastructure or a combination of the two. Public cloud is considered infrastructure that consists of shared resources, deployed on a self-service basis over the Internet.

By contrast, private cloud is infrastructure that emulates some of Cloud Computing features, like virtualization, but does so on a private network. Additionally, some hosting providers are beginning to offer a combination of traditional dedicated hosting alongside public and/ or private cloud networks. This combination approach is generally called Hybrid Cloud.

Characteristics of IaaS

As with the two previous sections, SaaS and PaaS, IaaS is a rapidly developing field. That said there are some core characteristics which describe what IaaS is. IaaS is generally accepted to comply with the following;

Resources are distributed as a service Allows for dynamic scaling Has a variable cost, utility pricing model Generally includes multiple users on a single piece of hardware

There are a plethora of IaaS providers out there from the largest Cloud players like Amazon Web Services [25] and Rackspace [26] to more boutique regional players.

As mentioned previously, the line between PaaS and IaaS is becoming more blurred as vendors introduce tools as part of IaaS that help with deployment including the ability to deploy multiple types of clouds [27].

Where IaaS Makes Sense

IaaS makes sense in a number of situations and these are closely related to the benefits that Cloud Computing bring. Situations that are particularly suitable for Cloud infrastructure include;

Where demand is very volatile any time there are significant spikes and troughs in terms of demand on the infrastructure For new organizations without the capital to invest in hardware Where the organization is growing rapidly and scaling hardware would be problematic Where there is pressure on the organization to limit capital expenditure and to move to operating expenditure For specific line of business, trial or temporary infrastructural needs

Where IaaS May Not be the Best Option

While IaaS provides massive advantages for situations where scalability and quick provisioning are beneficial, there are situations where its limitations may be problematic. Examples of situations where we would advise caution with regards IaaS include;

Where regulatory compliance makes the offshoring or outsourcing of data storage and processing difficult Where the highest levels of performance are required, and on-premise or dedicated hosted infrastructure has the capacity to meet the organizations needs

Live Smart Solutions is the parent company behind The Diet Solution Program, (insert endnote – a company producing books and online diet programs. Beyond Diet [28] is an interactive community site for individuals on their diet program.

Started in 2008, the company has seen rapid growth including a 50x revenue jump in 2010. This translates to average daily site visits of 300,000 with spikes up to one million unique viewers. When deciding on a strategy for their infrastructure, Beyond Diet needed something that was both low-touch and highly scalable. It is important that Beyond Diet have the ability to both scale up and down as their marketing strategy sees large traffic spikes on a regular basis.

Rob Volk, CTO of Live Smart, reports that moving to Cloud infrastructure has given him more peace of mind. Formerly Live Smart had a part-time systems administrator working on their sites, and as Volk says,

It was not the best option for us. Now with Managed Cloud [an IaaS service offered by cloud computing provider Rackspace], Rackspace is basically acting as our Linux and Windows administrator. Theyll make our changes as we need them, and respond to any downtime, 24 hours a day. Within minutes, an engineer will log on to fix the problem.

The main drivers for Volk moving to Cloud were the ability to focus on core business and leave day-to-day management of infrastructure to the experts. The fact that Cloud providers offer multiple levels of redundancy, fast configuring and high degrees of flexibility were deciding factors. Interestingly, Volk never even considered running his own physical servers; rather the decision was one of either hosted servers or the Cloud.

The decision was made to go with Cloud because it provided reduced cost and higher flexibility than corresponding dedicated server options.

Volk is using multiple Cloud providers: he has three web servers, multiple database servers and a load balancer with Rackspace, while also using Amazons S3 service.

The biggest benefit Volk sees with Cloud infrastructure is scalability. As he explains,

After New Years, everyone goes on a diet. Our peak time is right after New Years: we might get three times the traffic from January to March. With Cloud Servers, were able to spin up new web front ends within a matter of minutes, then take them back down once traffic goes down. We have this elasticity in our farm that is only possible in a virtualized environment.

Cloud Computing is a term that doesnt describe a single thing rather it is a general term that sits over a variety of services from Infrastructure as a Service at the base, through Platform as a Service as a development tool and through to Software as a Service replacing on-premise applications.

For organizations looking to move to Cloud Computing, it is important to understand the different aspects of Cloud Computing and to assess their own situation and decide which types of solutions are appropriate for their unique needs.

Cloud Computing is a rapidly accelerating revolution within IT and will become the default method of IT delivery moving into the future organizations would be advised to consider their approach towards beginning a move to the clouds sooner, rather than later.

About the Author Ben Kepes Ben is the founder and managing director of Diversity Limited, a consultancy specializing in Cloud Computing/SaaS, Collaboration, Business strategy and user-centric design. More information on Ben and Diversity Limited can be found at http://


1. 2. 3. Virtualization The ability to increase computing efficiency knowledge/whitepapers/Revolution_Not_Evolution-Whitepaper 4. Scalability and fast provisioning for IT at web scale – knowledge/whitepapers/Revolution_Not_Evolution-Whitepaper.pdf 5. From Water-wheel to Utility Power An analogy for the Cloud – hosting_knowledge/whitepapers/Revolution_Not_Evolution-Whitepaper.pdf 6. 7. 8. 9., http://www. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. and paas 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28.

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Cloud Computing Certification by Exin – Online and Classroom …

1.1 EXIN Cloud Computing Foundation Preview 00:39

1.2 Welcome to the Basic Training Material Preview 00:50

1.3 Agenda Preview 01:36

1.4 Introduction 00:08

1.5 Course objectives 00:23

1.6 Overview Cloud Computing Preview 01:46

1.7 1 The Principle-sof Cloud Computing 00:33

1.8 1 1 The Concept of cloud computing 00:22

1.9 Overview of the Concept of Cloud Computing 00:28

1.10 Definitions 02:03

1.11 Five Characteristics 03:46

1.12 IT becomes an utility 01:18

1.13 Cloud Computing Some examples 01:07

1.14 Four Deployment models 02:00

1.15 Private Cloud just another name for a datacenter 01:56

1.16 Public Cloud 01:37

1.17 Community Cloud 01:33

1.18 Hybrid Cloud Preview 02:09

1.19 Cloud Service Models 01:07

1.20 SaaS 02:39

1.21 Paas Preview 01:35

1.22 Iaas 01:24

1.23 Questions 00:51

1.24 1 2 The evolution toward Cloud computing 00:17

1.25 Overview of the Evolution of Cloud Computing 03:38

1.26 Historic timeline Preview 02:11

1.27 Minicomputers 00:57

1.28 From Microcomputer to PC 01:04

1.29 Local Area Networking Preview 01:04

1.30 Network and Servers 01:59

1.31 The role of the Internet 02:04

1.32 Virtualization Preview 00:54

1.33 Virtualization 01:21

1.34 Five types of virtualization 01:17

1.35 Types of Virtualization in Private Cloud Preview 00:19

1.36 Full Virtualization 01:43

1.37 Paravirtualization 01:24

1.38 Difference between Full and Paravirtualization 00:34

1.39 Difference between Full and Paravirtualization 00:53

1.40 Operating systems running on Full Virtualization 02:24

1.41 Operating system running on Paravirtualization Preview 00:49

1.42 Managed Services in the Cloud 00:33

1.43 Managed Services 01:32

1.44 Questions 00:59

1.45 1 3 History of Cloud 00:10

1.46 History and The making of the Cloud 00:49

1.47 Technologies 07:08

1.48 Cloud Evolution 04:09

1.49 Examples of Cloud Providers Preview 01:19

1.50 Examples Contd 02:54

1.51 Services by Microsoft Azure 00:19

1.52 Big Data 01:15

1.53 Big Data 00:27

1.54 Examples contd 00:31

1.55 Products offered by Salesforce 00:25

1.56 Sales Cloud 01:25

1.57 Service Cloud Preview 00:32

1.58 Grid Computing 02:10

1.59 Utility Computing 01:45

1.60 Utility Computing 01:07

1.61 Virtualization Preview 00:44

1.62 What is Virtualization 00:47

1.63 What is Virtualization 01:11

1.64 Today s IT Challenges 01:35

1.65 Typical Dev Test Infrastructure is an IT Headache 01:00

1.66 Virtualization is the Key Preview 00:42

1.67 Virtual Hardware 00:41

1.68 Virtualization Basics 00:43

1.69 Cloud Enabling Technology Virtualization Preview 02:03

1.70 Virtualization Basics 00:57

1.71 Virtualization Basics 00:45

1.72 Server Virtualization Architectures 00:25

1.73 The Hypervisor Preview 01:04

1.74 Questions 00:50

1.75 1 4 Cloud computing Architectures 00:08

1.76 Overview of Cloud Computing Architectures Preview 00:39

1.77 Cloud Computing Architectures 03:15

1.78 Multipurpose Architecture 00:44

1.79 Server Virtualization Architectures 02:44

1.80 Virtualization as the Operating System 01:41

1.81 Virtualization with a Host Operating System Preview 02:42

1.82 Tiered Architecture 04:17

1.83 Multi tenancy Architecture 01:23

1.84 Service Oriented Architectures 03:20

1.85 Cloud and SOA 01:00

1.86 Service Oriented Architecture Criteria 00:32

1.87 Questions 00:38

1.88 1 5 Benefits and limitations of cloud computing Preview 00:22

1.89 Overview of the Drivers Limitations 04:32

1.90 Main benefits of Cloud computing 02:15

1.91 Cloud Computing Limitations 02:08

1.92 2 Implementing and Managing Cloud Computing 00:41

1.93 Overview of Implementing and Managing Cloud Computing 00:18

1.94 2 1 Building a local Cloud environment 00:09

1.95 Overview of Local Cloud Environment 00:37

1.96 Why own a local Cloud environment 02:28

1.97 Main Components and their interconnection Preview 02:37

1.98 Main hardware components 00:56

1.99 Main software components Preview 00:48

1.100 Architectural considerations (general) 01:40

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Cloud Computing Certification by Exin – Online and Classroom …

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Dash (cryptocurrency) – Wikipedia


Official Dash logo

Dash (formerly known as Darkcoin and XCoin) is an open source peer-to-peer cryptocurrency that offers instant transactions (InstantSend),[1] private transactions (PrivateSend)[2] and token fungibility. It was rebranded from “Darkcoin” to “Dash” on March 25, 2015, a portmanteau of “Digital Cash”.[3]

Dash operates a decentralized governance and budgeting system, making it the first decentralized autonomous organization.[4]

Dash uses a chained hashing algorithm called X11 for the proof-of-work. Instead of using the SHA-256 (from well-known Secure Hash Algorithm family) or scrypt it uses 11 rounds of different hashing functions.[5]

As of 2016, Dash is among the top-7 most popular cryptocurrencies.[6]

Main website is

PrivateSend is a coin-mixing service originally based on CoinJoin. Later iterations used a more advanced method of pre-mixing denominations built into the user’s wallet. The implementation of PrivateSend also allows masternodes to submit the transactions using special network code called DSTX,[7] this provides additional privacy to users due to the deadchange issue present in other CoinJoin based implementations such as DarkWallet and CoinShuffle.[8]

DarkSend rebranded to PrivateSend June 2016.

In its current implementation it adds privacy to transactions by combining identical inputs from multiple users into a single transaction with several outputs. Due to the identical inputs, transactions usually cannot be directly traced, obfuscating the flow of funds. PrivateSend makes Dash “Fungible”[9] by mixing the coins in the same denomination with other wallets, ensuring that all coins are of the same value.

PrivateSend’s mixing is performed by Masternodes, servers operating on a decentralized network which have the responsibility of signing the transactions. For each round of PrivateSend, the user selects two to eight (or even more) rounds of mixing which vary the degree of anonymity achieved. Random Masternodes are then elected to perform the coin mixing. Masternodes are trust-less cryptographic technology, in the sense that they cannot steal user coins, and the combination of multiple Masternodes ensures that no single node has full knowledge of both inputs and outputs in the transaction process.

To avoid the possibility of sybil attack, a process where a peer-to-peer network is overtaken by “bad actors”, collateral requirements have been added to the process of joining the Masternode network second tier. These are presently 1000 DASH [10] and allow secure network communication in via signed messages. As an incentive for operating a Masternode, chosen nodes currently earn 45% of the mining rewards.[11]

InstantSend is a service that allows for near-instant transactions. Through this system, inputs can be locked to only specific transactions and verified by consensus of the Masternode network. Conflicting transactions and blocks are rejected. If a consensus cannot be reached, validation of the transaction occurs through standard block confirmation. InstantSend purportedly solves the double-spending problem without the longer confirmation times of other cryptocurriencies such as Bitcoin.[12]

InstantX rebranded to InstantSend June 2016.

X11 is a hashing algorithm created by Dash core developer Evan Duffield. X11’s chained hashing algorithm approach utilizes a sequence of eleven cryptographic hashing algorithms for the proof-of-work. This is so that the processing distribution is fair and coins will be distributed in much the same way Bitcoin’s were originally.[citation needed]

With chained hashing, high end CPUs give an average return similar to that of GPUs. Another side effect of the algorithm is that GPUs run at about 30% less electrical power than scrypt and 30% to 50% cooler, putting less stress on the computing setup and ensuring lower energy bills for miners.[13]

Dark Gravity Wave (DGW) is a mining difficulty adjustment algorithm created by Dash core developer Evan Duffield to address flaws in Kimoto’s Gravity Well. It uses multiple exponential moving averages and a simple moving average to smoothly adjust the difficulty, which is re-targeted every block. The block reward is not adjusted strictly by block number, but instead uses a formula controlled by Moore’s law: 2222222/((Difficulty+2600)/9)2.[14][15]

Dash is the first decentralized autonomous organization powered by a Sybil proof decentralized governance and funding system.[16] DGBB or Decentralized Governance By Blockchain as it’s called is a decentralized process by which the network determines where money is spent. Each Masternode operator is given the ability to use 1 vote on each governance proposal, which is a completely open and decentralized process.[17] Community interaction with proposal submitters is done usually through community driven websites, like DashWhale.[18] These websites allow proposal submitters to provide multiple drafts, then lobby for community support before finally submitting their project to the network for a vote. After the submitter has enough support, the network will automatically pay out the required funds in the next super block, which happen monthly.

Although, only in use a few months, the funding system has seen growth of its month revenue, from originally ~$14 thousands in September 2015, to nearly $30 thousands in March 2016.[19] Eventually the budget system can theoretically scale to $9M per month at a market cap of $500M.[20]

Since its inception, the project has used the system for important assets like acquiring,[21] adoption into the Lamassu ATM[22][23] and the Dash N’ Drink instant soda machine,[24] along with funding many public events.[25][26][27][28]

Masternodes utilize a cryptographic bond model, which results a supply and demand market between the interest rate Masternodes are paid and the risk of holding the underlying asset. Early on in the history of the asset, the high return caused a massive uptake of Masternodes, starting from about 500 in Oct 2014 and increasing to 3650 in March 2016.[29]

Dash was originally released as XCoin (XCO) on January 18, 2014. On February 28, the name was changed to “Darkcoin”. On March 25, 2015, Darkcoin was rebranded as “Dash”.[3]

I discovered Bitcoin in mid 2010 and was obsessed ever since. After a couple of years in 2012 I started really thinking about how to add anonymity to Bitcoin. I came up with maybe 10 ways of doing this, but I soon realized that Bitcoin would never add my code. The developers really want the core protocol to stay the same for the most part and everything else to be implemented on the top of it. This was the birth of the concept of Darkcoin. I implemented X11 in a weekend and found it worked pretty well and it would give a completely fair start to the currency. What I really was aiming for with X11 is a similar development curve where miners would fight to create small advantages much like the early start of Bitcoin. I think this a requirement to create a healthy ecosystem.


Within the first hour of launch, approximately 500,000 coins were mined, followed by another 1,000,000 coins in the next 7 hours and finally another 400,000 in 36 hours. All told 1.9 million coins were mined in 48 hours, or approximately 32% of the current supply (as of October 2015) of approximately 5.9 million,[31][32] generating controversy regarding the initial distribution of coins. According to Duffield, this was the result of an error in the code “which incorrectly converted the difficulty, then tried using a corrupt value to calculate the subsidy, causing the instamine”.[33] At the time, Duffield was working a full-time job and coding for Dash on the side, so its not surprising that there were errors in the initial code.[33] Duffield claims in the official thread (mirrored) that “Dash has no premine and was fairly and transparently launched”.[34]

At the time Dash (then called Xcoin) was launched, the cryptocurrency space was riddled with scams. People were creating new currencies, hyping their value, then dumping them and abandoning the project. Many likely feared the same for Dash. However, since Dash’s launch, there has been over two years of development, leading to a cryptocurrency that has over 50 volunteers and has solved such vexing issues as slow confirmation times, block size increases, decentralized governance, and a self-funding development budget.

According to CoinMarketCap, in August 2016 the daily trade volume of Dash was ~1% of the total trade of all cryptocurrencies,[35] and the market capitalization of Dash was ~80 millions of US dollars.[36] Since then, Dash has become the most active community on BitcoinTalk reaching more than 6000 pages, 122k replies, 6.6M reads.

Zerocoin, Cloakcoin and DarkNet also have built in the mixing services as a part of their blockchain network.[37]

The Dark Wallet client software for bitcoin was built to natively mix transactions between users.[38]

Monero_(cryptocurrency) is a cryptocurrency based on the CryptoNote protocol. It has gained attention recently for being adopted by dark net market AlphaBay.[39]

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Dash (cryptocurrency) – Wikipedia

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Final Version of NIST Cloud Computing Definition Published

After years in the works and 15 drafts, the National Institute of Standards and Technology’s (NIST) working definition of cloud computing, the 16th and final definition has been published as The NIST Definition of Cloud Computing (NIST Special Publication 800-145).

Cloud computing is a relatively new business model in the computing world. According to the official NIST definition, “cloud computing is a model for enabling ubiquitous, convenient, on-demand network access to a shared pool of configurable computing resources (e.g., networks, servers, storage, applications and services) that can be rapidly provisioned and released with minimal management effort or service provider interaction.”

The NIST definition lists five essential characteristics of cloud computing: on-demand self-service, broad network access, resource pooling, rapid elasticity or expansion, and measured service. It also lists three “service models” (software, platform and infrastructure), and four “deployment models” (private, community, public and hybrid) that together categorize ways to deliver cloud services. The definition is intended to serve as a means for broad comparisons of cloud services and deployment strategies, and to provide a baseline for discussion from what is cloud computing to how to best use cloud computing.

“When agencies or companies use this definition,” says NIST computer scientist Peter Mell, “they have a tool to determine the extent to which the information technology implementations they are considering meet the cloud characteristics and models. This is important because by adopting an authentic cloud, they are more likely to reap the promised benefits of cloudcost savings, energy savings, rapid deployment and customer empowerment. And matching an implementation to the cloud definition can assist in evaluating the security properties of the cloud.”

While just finalized, NIST’s working definition of cloud computing has long been the de facto definition. In fact before it was officially published, the draft was the U.S. contribution to the InterNational Committee for Information Technology Standards (INCITS) as that group worked to develop a standard international cloud computing definition.

The first draft of the cloud computing definition was created in November 2009. “We went through many versions while vetting it with government and industry before we had a stable one.” That one, version 15, was posted to the NIST cloud computing website in July 2009. In January 2011 that version was published for public comment as public draft SP 800-145.

Researchers received a large amount of feedback, which mainly dealt with interpretations. The definition from draft to final remained substantively the same and only a modest number of changes were made to ensure consistent interpretations. The NIST Definition of Cloud Computing (SP 800-145) is available at

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Final Version of NIST Cloud Computing Definition Published

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Cloud Hosting Servers | Managed with 24/7 Support


We offer a range of Linux distributions as well as Microsoft Windows Server.

Which OS should I choose?

If you require a Linux server and don’t intend on reselling hosting, then we recommend selecting CentOS due to its renowned stability and long-term support. CentOS is also compatible with both Plesk and cPanel/WHM.

If you require a Linux server and intend to resell hosting then we recommend CloudLinux as it has a number of features such as account isolation that makes it ideal for use in a shared hosting environment.

For Windows VMs, we offer Windows Server 2012 R2 64-bit.

All Linux distributions are 64-bit; 32-bit distributions are available upon request however please note 32-bit operating systems are limited to a maximum of 4GB RAM and as a result are not recommended.

If the distribution or operating system version you require is not listed please contact our support team. In the vast majority of cases we can provide the OS or version you require.


CentOS is a Linux operating system that is based on the commercially available Red Hat Enterprise Linux, because of its close relationship with RedHat it has become known for its very high level of security, stability and long term support.

If you are unsure which Linux distribution to choose we would advise selecting CentOS.

Supported control panels include:


Debian is a Linux Operating system that it know for it maturity and stability making it an excellent choice for applications such as web, mail and database servers.

Supported control panels:

Please note we do not provide technical support for control panels we do not offer directly. If you prefer Webmin or DirectAdmin, you will need to order your cloud server without a control panel and install it manually.


Ubuntu LTS (Long Term Support) is the server edition of Ubuntu Linux by Canonical.

Designed for enterprise deployments; Ubuntu LTS Linux is an excellent choice for mission critical applications.

Supported control panels:

Please note we do not provide technical support for control panels we do not offer directly. If you prefer Webmin or DirectAdmin, you will need to order your cloud server without a control panel and install it manually.


CloudLinux is designed specifically for web hosts and is the recommended choice for clients that intend to use their cloud server to resell web hosting.

CloudLinux provides a number of web hosting specific features including account isolation, per account resource limiting and throttling and server hardening perfect for shared hosting environments.

Supported control panels include:

Key Cloud Linux Features


CageFS uniquely encapsulates each customer, preventing users from seeing each other and viewing sensitive information. It prevents a large number of attacks, including most of the privilege escalation and information disclosure attacks.

LVE Manager

LVE manager gives you full control over CPU, IO, memory, number of processes, and concurrent connections per user. Limit abusers, provide good customers with what they need, and upsell at any time.

Hardened PHP

In old PHP versions, including widely used 5.2, 5.3, and 5.4, vulnerabilities, even if discovered, are not patched by the community. HardenedPHP fixes those vulnerabilities and secures old and unsupported versions.

MySQL Governor

MySQL is one of the main causes of issues on a shared server. MySQL Governor monitors MySQL usage, and throttles abusers, preventing them from overloading the server and improving overall stability and performance.


SecureLinks is a kernel-level technology that prevents known symbolic link attacks, which further enhances the security level of the servers.


OptimumCache you can double IO throughput on a typical shared-hosting system by eliminating IO operations related to reading duplicate files, thus optimizing file caching. This is perfect for sites running software like WordPress or Joomla.


Mod_lsapi is the fastest and most reliable way to serve PHP pages. It has a low memory footprint and understands PHP directives from .htaccess files.

Windows Server

Windows Server 2012 R2 standard is the latest version of Windows server and is the perfect choice for applications developed for and MS SQL.

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Cloud Hosting Servers | Managed with 24/7 Support

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