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2018 Bahamas Blockchain & Cryptocurrency Conference

Day 1 June 20th

All Day Exhibits (Local, Regional, and Global Companies Sponsors, Service Providers

9:00am 10:15am Official Opening Programme

10:30am 11:45am Speaker/Panel/Fireside Chat Opportunities

Topic: How Can I Get Funded?

Moderator: Rhonda Eldridge, CPA, CA, Founder & Impactioneer, Harness All Possibilities, Inc.

Panelists

12:00 noon 1:15pm Invitation Only: Prime Ministers Lunch

Speaker: The Honourable K. Peter Turnquest, M.P., Deputy Prime Minister and Minister of Finance

1:30pm 3:15pm Afternoon Panel Discussion:

Topic: The Technology Sector in The Bahamas is Open for Business: Cryptocurrencies, ICOs, and Exchanges

Moderator: Dr. Donovan Moxey, Chairman, 2018 BBCC Planning Committee and Co-Founder, CBI Mobile (Bah) Ltd

Panelists

3:30pm 4:45pm Speaker/Panel/Fireside Chat Opportunities

Topic: Islands in the Data Stream: Blockchain as a Global Resource for Seed and Growth Capital

Moderator: Kristie Powell

Panelists

5:00pm 6:30pm Speaker/Panel/Fireside Chat Opportunities

Topic: Should I Invest?

Moderator: Kelly Banks, Head of Digital and Innovation, Ansbacher

Panelists

6:30pm Private Reception

Day 2 June 21st

All Day Exhibit (Local, Regional, and Global Companies Sponsors, Service Providers

9:00am 10:45am Investor Pitches

11:00am 11:45pm noon Opening Keynote Address

Speaker: Michael J. Casey, Chairman, CoinDesk Advisory Board

12:00 noon 1:15pm Lunch Break at Local Establishments

1:30pm 4:15pm Main stage

1:30 pm Investor Pitches

2:20 pm 3:15 pm Full STEAM Ahead: Small Island Nation Educational Outreach

3:30 pm 4:30 pm RoundTable Discussions Outreach

Topic: Bahamian Blockchain Enthusiasts

Moderator: Michael J. Casey, Chairman, CoinDesk Advisory Board

Panelists

4:30pm 5:45pm Afternoon Panel Discussion

Topic: A Global Perspective on Regulatory Frameworks for Cryptocurrency and ICOs

Moderator: Joel Telpner, Partner, Sullivan & Worcester

Panelists

Day 3 June 22nd

All Day Exhibit (Local, Regional, and Global Companies Sponsors, Service Providers

9:00am 10:45am Investor Pitches

Discussion Leader: Donovan Moxey

11:00am 11:45am Keynote Address

Speaker: Mr. Anthony Di Iorio, CEO, Decentral

12:00 noon 1:15pm Lunch Break

1:30pm 2:45pm Afternoon Panel Discussion

Moderator: Stuart Hoegner, General Counsel, Bitfinex

Topic: Digital Token Exchanges

Panelists

3:00pm 4:15pm Investor Pitches

4:30pm 6:00pm Afternoon Presentation and Fireside Chat Topic: What Does the Future look like for Blockchain, Cryptocurrency, and FinTech Solutions?

Interviewer: Kimberly King Burns, Managing Director, Convergenz

Speaker(s): Manie Eagar, CEO, Digital Futures; Matthew Arnett, CEO, Po8; John Willock, Co-Founder & CEO, Quantex, Ltd.

7:30pm Closing Reception/Celebration/Local Culture Sponsored by: BTC

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Amazon.com: Quantum Computing: A Gentle Introduction …

The authors have given us an introduction to the new field of quantum information, accessible to anyone familiar with college-level mathematics. It will be the easiest way for anyone to go from knowing no quantum mechanics to understanding cutting-edge problems in quantum computing. It will also be the most comprehensive and current book on the subject.

The authors’ aim is to make quantum computation accessible to a broad audience, and they have done a very good job in breaking down its elementsmathematics, physics, computer scienceinto comprehensible pieces. The book should be a good addition to the educational literature on the subject.

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Download Symantec Encryption Desktop 10.4.0 Build 1100

Having private information in emails end up in the wrong hands is a worst-case scenario, especially in the corporate environment. Leaving aside the encryption capabilities provided by any reputable email client, the end-to-end email encryption provided by Symantec Encryption Desktop can automatically safeguard the content in the user’s emails, making the transfer between source and destination clients much more difficult to intercept.

Symantec Encryption Desktop is compatible with the most popular email clients, namely Microsoft Outlook, Exchange and Office 365, Windows Live Mail, Thunderbird, Lotus Notes / Domino Server, and can also encrypt data on Exchange, IBM Domino, and vSphere servers.

In its endeavor to achieve unbreakable data protection, it relies on PGP technology and uses strong public key algorithms, such as DSA (1024-bit keys only), RSA (up to 4096-bit keys), and Diffie-Hellman. Popular mail protocols are supported (POP3, SMTP, IMAP, MAPI, and Lotus Notes).

To benefit from automatic email encryption, users must create a new PGP key for their email account and configure the security policies they want Symantec Encryption Desktop to apply. Aside from the default policies, users can create additional rules for message encoding. Advanced messaging safety standards are supported, such as PGP/MIME RFC 3156, S/MIME v3 RFC 2633, X.509 v3, or OpenPGP RFC 4880.

While its main purpose is to secure email content, Symantec Encryption Desktop also delivers additional data protection tools. It can create so-called PGP Zips, meaning it can encrypt the contents of any folder on the computer. Going even further, it can encrypt entire disks or partitions, rendering the computer unable to boot in case anyone tries to break into it without permission.

Additionally, it enables users to generate virtual disks, each having its own unique PGP key, where sensitive data can be stored safely. And, as expected, it also comprises a data wiping tool that can shred important files users want to get rid of permanently.

Having Symantec’s proven technology at its core, the Encryption Desktop utility relies on user-generated PGP keys to protect important information that is transferred from and to email clients, as well as data stored locally on the user’s computer. What’s more, it can be used for secure file sharing and allows users to encrypt or sign data in opened windows or located in the clipboard.

Email encryption Encrypt disk End-to-end encryption Encryption Email Sign Encrypt

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Best Cryptocurrency Trading Platform 2018 | Top Crypto …

Whats the newest asset class taking the investment world by storm?

Cryptocurrency. Lack of regulation is its biggest appeal. However, that may change, given a recent call for regulating this segment. Though it is a big hit with investors, especially because of the record run of Bitcoin, the most popular of all the digital currencies, there have been skeptics crying foul over the legitimacy of this investment class.

The mushrooming of cryptocurrency is proof that its moving toward mainstream acceptance. Apart from Bitcoin, there are a multitude of cryptocurrency options for traders such as Litecoin, Ethereum, Ripple, Bitcoin Cash, Dash, etc.

If you are looking for a solid US based company to trade Bitcoin Futures, TradeStation is your best option. They offer low commissions, overnight daytrade margins, and more interest earned on your existing cash balance.

Technically, cryptocurrency, also known as digital currency, are entries made in a digital ledger which cannot be tampered with unless they fulfill certain conditions. In other words, it is a peer-to-peer electronic cash system. The best part is, it is decentralized, with no server or central authority.

Cryptocurrency consists of each peer in a network of peers who have a record of the complete history of transactions and are privy to the balance of every account.

Ultimately, cryptocurrency is a medium of exchange created and stored electronically in the blockchain using encryption techniques with a two-fold purpose:

This image showcases how cryptocurrency works:

Cryptocurrency is a medium of exchange created and and stored electronically in the blockchain.

Those interested in trading in cryptocurrency should have a good understanding of the characteristics of the cryptocurrency market.

This market is decentralized, with no government or bank involved. This ensures privacy of transaction and elimination of transaction charges. Whats more, there is no capital limit with respect to the transactions.

The supply of cryptocurrencies are limited, as it cannot be created arbitrarily and will have to be mined by digital means. For example, Bitcoin founders have stipulated that only 21 million Bitcoins can be mined in total.

The cryptocurrency craze is reaching a feverish pitch due to several reasons, some of which are listed below:

In simple terms, block is like a page of a record or ledger. Blocks are files where data concerning a digital currency network is stored permanently.

It is the list of all transactions in a peer-to-peer network.

Mining is a computationally-intensive process the computers or nodes in a cryptocurrency network complete to verify the transaction record. In return, miners receive digital coins as compensation.

Computer system used for mining cyrptocurrencies.

Any computer that connects to a blockchain is called a node.

These are websites where cryptocurrencies can be bought or sold, or in other words, exchanged in return for other digital currencies or traditional currencies.

Initial Coin Offering, or ICO, is selling a new digital currency or token at a discount by a company to raise money. It is the means by which a new cryptocurrency venture raises funds.

Asoftware program used to store private and public keys which are used to send and receive digital currencies and monitor their balance by interfacing with various blockchains.

Cryptocurrency can be traded through two ways. Actual cryptocurrency can be bought and sold at a cryptocurrency exchange. The digital currency as a speculative investment is traded as contract for difference, or CFD, through brokers.

A CFA is an tradable instrument that moves in tandem with the underlying asset and is a contract negotiated between the broker and its customer. Traders dont actually own the underlying asset, but profits or losses when the underlying asset moves in relation to the position taken.

For our comparison purpose, only brokers were taken into account.

If youre a US-based trader, those no doubt that you have heard about Coinbase. Its pretty large;the company has served over 200 million customers and handled about$150 billion in transactions.

Coinbase boasts great customer service, which is a huge win for customers of an online platform. And, your cryptocurrency whether youre trading Bitcoin, Ethereum, Litecoin, ERC20 token, or anything else is protected. The platform uses vaultprotections, delayed withdrawals, and two-factor authentication. The best part? Your cryptocurrencyis covered by insurance.

The desktop and mobile apps are simple to use, especially for first time traders. You have easy access to trends, charts, and can buy and sell with a few clicks. Set up recurring buys, too. The simplicity makes for a pretty seamless trading experience.

While their Digital Wallet service is free, Coinbase does have fees for buying and selling cryptocurrency. In the United States, Coinbase has a 4 percent base rate for all transactions. But exact payout, deposit, and transfer fees will differ depending on the amount and type of transaction.

AvaTrade has emerged as one of the overall winners among brokers offering cryptocurrency trading. Its trading platform caters to various types of traders. AvaTrade also has additional trading tools such as live quotes and charts and it has carved a unique niche for itself in cryptocurrency trading.

The fairly affordable account minimum, competitive swap rates and the breadth of coins offered also makes it a preferred destination for investors looking to make some quick bucks through trading cryptocurrencies.

These are the digital currencies offered by brokers:

Among the brokers on our radar, most of them offer desktop, online, as well as web trading platforms.

Plus500 offers its proprietary trading platform, which comes in four versions: downloadable, web-based, app version and a version for Apple Watch Platform. The platform has a charting software, allows trading in multiple markets from the same screen and provides real time quotes.

eToro offers web and mobile trading platforms.

AvaTrade presents a wide-selection of platforms and also the option for automated trading. The trading platforms offered include AvaTradeAct, Metatrader 4, Mac Trading, Automated Trading, Web Trading and Mobile Trading.

AvaTrade looks like a clear winner this category.

Among the shortlisted brokers, the minimum deposit requirement is as follows:

Etoro is the clear winner in this category, as it has the lowest account minimum requirement.

Plus500 scores the most.

Cryptocurrency trading happens 24/7, necessitating customer service around the clock. More importantly, live support is preferred over auto-attendants, given the complexities involved in trading digital currencies.

AvaTrade offers phone support and allows deposits and withdrawals through multiple avenues such as credit/debit card, wire transfer, e-payments, etc. The firm claims one-click functionality for buying Bitcoin or Bitcoin cash on its MT4 platform. Meanwhile, Plus500 does not have phone support, and instead, services clients through live chat and e-mail. Markets.com assists through in-platform live support and 24/5 help center.

Meanwhile, easyMarkets promises 24/5 support, the option to trade anywhere (mobile, tablet or PC) and market insight. UFX promises a personal trading coach and allows funding your account using Bitcoins.

AvaTrade scores highest in the customer service category.

AvaTrade emerges the winner in this category.

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Google Cloud IoT Reviews and Pricing – 2018

Pros: Right from the onboarding, configuring to daily use, for our mobility fleet, Google Cloud IOT has always been up to our expectations. Its integration with Android SDK and the highest level of compatibility with our mobile apps has made the experience even better. In the end, everything boils down to the pricing, and it has been really effective for our use. Per second pricing makes more sense, as we can avoid costs during our down-times and pay only when our fleet is in use and communicating with the platform.

Cons: Despite being an amazing platform, the limitation which impacted us the most was its compatibility with our prototype IoT hardware. This had set us back by a few months, as we had to change the IoT hardware to something which would be more compatible with Google Cloud. I only wish that it could be integrated with all the components available in the market.

Overall: Real-time analytics on the data generated by mobility fleet.

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Cryptocurrency: Advantages And Disadvantages Explained

Cryptocurrency: Advantages & Disadvantages Explained

With the price spike of digital currencies such as Bitcoin in 2017, the space has begun receiving more media attention than it ever has before. Its coverage frequently takes the form of a debate, with advocates citing cryptocurrency as the clear future of money while opponents point out many flaws that have yet to be worked out. The public’s knowledge base in this area is relatively lacking, the fact that both sides use to sway general opinion toward their position.

This article serves as a primer on the arguments for and against crypto. It does not include all information on the topic; instead, it sticks with fundamental concepts to allow the layman to decide for themselves whether to support cryptocurrencies or not.

The most persuasive argument in favor of digital monies is their underlying blockchain technology. The blockchain is a decentralized public ledger displaying every transaction that has ever taken place on a given token’s network. This system enables the tracking of individual coins through every account that they have ever been in, making it very easy to track stolen coins. Backers cite this feature as proof that Bitcoin and similar currencies are hack-proof where traditional banking is not.

Hackers may also have a hard time with the lack of a central hub on which to focus a cyber attack. While the U.S. government and large banking institutions have centralized information ripe for stealing, the blockchain has no equivalent. Every block, or group of transactions on the blockchain, is checked against previous blocks to ensure that they are valid by volunteer miners who use computers to process complicated algebraic equations. With no central authority, the crypto community has total control over the digital money supply, making it a far more democratic financial system.

Digital money offers several practical advantages over more traditional currencies as well. For example, citizens of developing countries may have a hard time locating a currency with any worth in the global marketplace, effectively locking them out of it. A digital currency with universal acceptance would theoretically open the global market to every possible participant, allowing everyone to compete on an even playing field.

Some blockchains, such as the one used by Ethereum, are also programmable. That serves twin purposes: first, it enables developers interested in blockchain technology to work on a common platform with multiple applications. Second, it allows for the development of smart contracts, or electronic contracts capable of fulfilling themselves. These agreements have the potential to revolutionize the way people conduct their global business.

Finally, crypto transactions may involve less money than those reliant on fiat currencies. For instance, a Bitcoin transaction requires only a Satoshi (5,430 millionths of one Bitcoin) to process. Deals using American dollars must be worth at least $0.01, as there is no physical coin for less than that. That opens a broad range of microtransactions that are just impossible to process otherwise.

Most crypto skeptics struggle with the idea that digital currency is worth anything at all. Gold has enjoyed high value since the dawn of history, and government-issued money gets backing from that government. Bitcoin serves no practical purpose in the modern marketplace and has nothing underwriting its value, so it could theoretically become utterly worthless in a day.

Wild price fluctuations often exacerbate these fears. Even in Bitcoin’s banner 2017, there was a two-week stretch in December where it lost 25 percent of its total value. These fluctuations make it challenging for businesses to accept crypto as payment for goods and services, as the effective price can vary dramatically by the hour.

Some cryptos, including Bitcoin, are also too slow to process for everyday commercial use. For example, Bitcoin miners can handle three to seven transactions per second, compared to Visa, which can process more than 24,000 over the same period. The resources required to verify Bitcoin transactions are also cost-prohibitive at times, producing transaction fees of up to USD 25 during peak periods. That renders Bitcoin unsuitable for cheaper transactions even as it touts an ability to go less expensive than traditional monies can.

Many people do not trust the underlying code behind blockchain either. The technology was the brainchild of a person or group calling themselves Satoshi Nakamoto. Their true identity was never made public, leading many to question how much influence they might still hold over the cryptocurrency.

Other scams are also common in the space. So-called crypto experts frequently take advantage of the lack of regulation to buy a lot of a cheap token they then hype up in the media. Their recommendation causes a demand spike that allows the expert to profit handsomely from their investment. Everybody else loses their money as a part of the scheme.

The exchanges that facilitate crypto trades are also unscrupulous at times. For instance, one popular exchange called BitConnect was forced to shut down amid allegations that it was orchestrating a Ponzi scheme rather than offering a legitimate service. Even honest exchanges lack insurance, meaning that a hacker can delete anybody’s virtual assets and leave them with no method to recover their money. That is what happened to an exchange called Mount Gulg in 2014 when someone discovered $473 million worth of Bitcoin siphoned from their customers’ accounts over a period of years.

An unbiased observer is likely to conclude that digital currencies have a lot of future potential, but a lot of problems to overcome before they realize it. It’s up to you whether you think the time is now for cryptocurrencies, or if traditional money systems are safe for the time being.

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Bitcoin – Bitcoin Price Live, BTC Value, Mining, BTC to USD …

THE TEAM

Bitcoin was created by an anonymous name called Satoshi Nakamoto Other notable names rumored to be part of the team include

The practical uses of Bitcoin

If you have the required hardware, you can mine bitcoin even if you are not a miner. There are different ways one can mine bitcoin such as cloud mining, mining pool, etc. For cloud mining, all you need to do is to connect to the datacenter and start mining. The good thing about this is that you can mine from anywhere and you dont need a physical hardware to mine.

For mining pool, all you need to do is to join a mining group, and if that team solves a computational problem, blocks are added to the blockchain, they get the reward and you get a share of it based on your contribution.

PoW algorithm-SHA-256 is used for mining. Which utilizes a lot of computational power.

Bitcoin mining saps energy, costly, uses more power and also the reward delays. For mining, run software, get your wallet ready and be the first to solve a cryptographic problem and you get your reward after the new blocks have been added to the blockchain.Mining is said to be successful when all the transactions are recorded in the blockchain and the new blocks are added to the blockchain.

Notes for investors

Die-hard Bitcoin supporters believe that bitcoin is the future; we are just scratching the surface.Considering the continuous rise of bitcoin in the market capitalization, it is one investment every investor needs to take advantage of it.

The current market capitalization of bitcoin stands at an all-time high of $109 billion. As at January 2016, bitcoin was traded at I BTC for $970 but today is being traded at $6,600 for 1 BTC.

From the statistics presented above, it that bitcoin is one investment, you will never regret embarking on. It keeps recording an impressive results daily in the cryptocurrency market.

MUST READ!

Cryptocurrency investment is speculative, and it involves unquantifiable risks the market is full of uncertainty, susceptible to attack and capital loss, and sensitive to secondary issues, time may do not permit to mention here.Seek advice before investing.

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HTTPS – Wikipedia

HTTP Secure (HTTPS) is an extension of the Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) for secure communication over a computer network, and is widely used on the Internet.[1][2] In HTTPS, the communication protocol is encrypted using Transport Layer Security (TLS), or formerly, its predecessor, Secure Sockets Layer (SSL). The protocol is therefore also often referred to as HTTP over TLS,[3] or HTTP over SSL.

The principal motivation for HTTPS is authentication of the accessed website and protection of the privacy and integrity of the exchanged data while in transit. It protects against man-in-the-middle attacks. The bidirectional encryption of communications between a client and server protects against eavesdropping and tampering of the communication.[4] In practice, this provides a reasonable assurance that one is communicating without interference by attackers with the website that one intended to communicate with, as opposed to an impostor.

Historically, HTTPS connections were primarily used for payment transactions on the World Wide Web, e-mail and for sensitive transactions in corporate information systems.[citation needed] Since 2018[update][citation needed], HTTPS is used more often by webusers than the original non-secure HTTP, primarily to protect page authenticity on all types of websites; secure accounts; and keep user communications, identity, and web browsing private.

The Uniform Resource Identifier (URI) scheme HTTPS has identical usage syntax to the HTTP scheme. However, HTTPS signals the browser to use an added encryption layer of SSL/TLS to protect the traffic. SSL/TLS is especially suited for HTTP, since it can provide some protection even if only one side of the communication is authenticated. This is the case with HTTP transactions over the Internet, where typically only the server is authenticated (by the client examining the server’s certificate).

HTTPS creates a secure channel over an insecure network. This ensures reasonable protection from eavesdroppers and man-in-the-middle attacks, provided that adequate cipher suites are used and that the server certificate is verified and trusted.

Because HTTPS piggybacks HTTP entirely on top of TLS, the entirety of the underlying HTTP protocol can be encrypted. This includes the request URL (which particular web page was requested), query parameters, headers, and cookies (which often contain identity information about the user). However, because host (website) addresses and port numbers are necessarily part of the underlying TCP/IP protocols, HTTPS cannot protect their disclosure. In practice this means that even on a correctly configured web server, eavesdroppers can infer the IP address and port number of the web server (sometimes even the domain name e.g. http://www.example.org, but not the rest of the URL) that one is communicating with, as well as the amount (data transferred) and duration (length of session) of the communication, though not the content of the communication.[4]

Web browsers know how to trust HTTPS websites based on certificate authorities that come pre-installed in their software. Certificate authorities (such as Let’s Encrypt, Digicert, Comodo, GoDaddy and GlobalSign) are in this way being trusted by web browser creators to provide valid certificates. Therefore, a user should trust an HTTPS connection to a website if and only if all of the following are true:

HTTPS is especially important over insecure networks (such as public Wi-Fi access points), as anyone on the same local network can packet-sniff and discover sensitive information not protected by HTTPS. Additionally, many free to use and paid WLAN networks engage in packet injection in order to serve their own ads on webpages. However, this can be exploited maliciously in many ways, such as injecting malware onto webpages and stealing users’ private information.[5]

HTTPS is also very important for connections over the Tor anonymity network, as malicious Tor nodes can damage or alter the contents passing through them in an insecure fashion and inject malware into the connection. This is one reason why the Electronic Frontier Foundation and the Tor project started the development of HTTPS Everywhere,[4] which is included in the Tor Browser Bundle.[6]

As more information is revealed about global mass surveillance and criminals stealing personal information, the use of HTTPS security on all websites is becoming increasingly important regardless of the type of Internet connection being used.[7][8] While metadata about individual pages that a user visits is not sensitive, when combined, they can reveal a lot about the user and compromise the user’s privacy.[9][10][11]

Deploying HTTPS also allows the use of HTTP/2 (or its predecessor, the now-deprecated protocol SPDY), that are new generations of HTTP, designed to reduce page load times, size and latency.

It is recommended to use HTTP Strict Transport Security (HSTS) with HTTPS to protect users from man-in-the-middle attacks, especially SSL stripping.[11][12]

HTTPS should not be confused with the little-used Secure HTTP (S-HTTP) specified in RFC 2660.

As of April2018[update], 33.2% of Alexa top 1,000,000 websites use HTTPS as default,[13] 57.1% of the Internet’s 137,971 most popular websites have a secure implementation of HTTPS,[14] and 70% of page loads (measured by Firefox Telemetry) use HTTPS.[15]

Most browsers display a warning if they receive an invalid certificate. Older browsers, when connecting to a site with an invalid certificate, would present the user with a dialog box asking whether they wanted to continue. Newer browsers display a warning across the entire window. Newer browsers also prominently display the site’s security information in the address bar. Extended validation certificates turn the address bar green in newer browsers. Most browsers also display a warning to the user when visiting a site that contains a mixture of encrypted and unencrypted content.

Most web browsers alert the user when visiting sites that have invalid security certificates.

The Electronic Frontier Foundation, opining that “In an ideal world, every web request could be defaulted to HTTPS”, has provided an add-on called HTTPS Everywhere for Mozilla Firefox that enables HTTPS by default for hundreds of frequently used websites. A beta version of this plugin is also available for Google Chrome and Chromium.[16][17]

The security of HTTPS is that of the underlying TLS, which typically uses long-term public and private keys to generate a short-term session key, which is then used to encrypt the data flow between client and server. X.509 certificates are used to authenticate the server (and sometimes the client as well). As a consequence, certificate authorities and public key certificates are necessary to verify the relation between the certificate and its owner, as well as to generate, sign, and administer the validity of certificates. While this can be more beneficial than verifying the identities via a web of trust, the 2013 mass surveillance disclosures drew attention to certificate authorities as a potential weak point allowing man-in-the-middle attacks.[18][19] An important property in this context is forward secrecy, which ensures that encrypted communications recorded in the past cannot be retrieved and decrypted should long-term secret keys or passwords be compromised in the future. Not all web servers provide forward secrecy.[20][needs update]

A site must be completely hosted over HTTPS, without having part of its contents loaded over HTTPfor example, having scripts loaded insecurelyor the user will be vulnerable to some attacks and surveillance. Also having only a certain page that contains sensitive information (such as a log-in page) of a website loaded over HTTPS, while having the rest of the website loaded over plain HTTP, will expose the user to attacks. On a site that has sensitive information somewhere on it, every time that site is accessed with HTTP instead of HTTPS, the user and the session will get exposed. Similarly, cookies on a site served through HTTPS have to have the secure attribute enabled.[11]

HTTPS URLs begin with “https://” and use port 443 by default, whereas HTTP URLs begin with “http://” and use port 80 by default.

HTTP is not encrypted and is vulnerable to man-in-the-middle and eavesdropping attacks, which can let attackers gain access to website accounts and sensitive information, and modify webpages to inject malware or advertisements. HTTPS is designed to withstand such attacks and is considered secure against them (with the exception of older, deprecated versions of SSL).

HTTP operates at the highest layer of the TCP/IP model, the Application layer; as does the TLS security protocol (operating as a lower sublayer of the same layer), which encrypts an HTTP message prior to transmission and decrypts a message upon arrival. Strictly speaking, HTTPS is not a separate protocol, but refers to use of ordinary HTTP over an encrypted SSL/TLS connection.

Everything in the HTTPS message is encrypted, including the headers, and the request/response load. With the exception of the possible CCA cryptographic attack described in the limitations section below, the attacker can only know that a connection is taking place between the two parties and their domain names and IP addresses.

To prepare a web server to accept HTTPS connections, the administrator must create a public key certificate for the web server. This certificate must be signed by a trusted certificate authority for the web browser to accept it without warning. The authority certifies that the certificate holder is the operator of the web server that presents it. Web browsers are generally distributed with a list of signing certificates of major certificate authorities so that they can verify certificates signed by them.

Let’s Encrypt, launched in April 2016,[21] provides free and automated SSL/TLS certificates to websites.[22] According to the Electronic Frontier Foundation, “Let’s Encrypt” will make switching from HTTP to HTTPS “as easy as issuing one command, or clicking one button.”[23]. The majority of web hosts and cloud providers already leverage Let’s Encrypt, providing free certificates to their customers.

The system can also be used for client authentication in order to limit access to a web server to authorized users. To do this, the site administrator typically creates a certificate for each user, a certificate that is loaded into their browser. Normally, that contains the name and e-mail address of the authorized user and is automatically checked by the server on each reconnect to verify the user’s identity, potentially without even entering a password.

An important property in this context is perfect forward secrecy (PFS). Possessing one of the long-term asymmetric secret keys used to establish an HTTPS session should not make it easier to derive the short-term session key to then decrypt the conversation, even at a later time. DiffieHellman key exchange (DHE) and Elliptic curve DiffieHellman key exchange (ECDHE) are in 2013 the only ones known to have that property. Only 30% of Firefox, Opera, and Chromium Browser sessions use it, and nearly 0% of Apple’s Safari and Microsoft Internet Explorer sessions.[20] Among the larger internet providers, only Google supports PFS since 2011[update] (State of September 2013).[citation needed]

A certificate may be revoked before it expires, for example because the secrecy of the private key has been compromised. Newer versions of popular browsers such as Firefox,[24] Opera,[25] and Internet Explorer on Windows Vista[26] implement the Online Certificate Status Protocol (OCSP) to verify that this is not the case. The browser sends the certificate’s serial number to the certificate authority or its delegate via OCSP and the authority responds, telling the browser whether the certificate is still valid.[27]

SSL and TLS encryption can be configured in two modes: simple and mutual. In simple mode, authentication is only performed by the server. The mutual version requires the user to install a personal client certificate in the web browser for user authentication.[28] In either case, the level of protection depends on the correctness of the implementation of software and the cryptographic algorithms in use.

SSL/TLS does not prevent the indexing of the site by a web crawler, and in some cases the URI of the encrypted resource can be inferred by knowing only the intercepted request/response size.[29] This allows an attacker to have access to the plaintext (the publicly available static content), and the encrypted text (the encrypted version of the static content), permitting a cryptographic attack.

Because TLS operates at a protocol level below that of HTTP, and has no knowledge of the higher-level protocols, TLS servers can only strictly present one certificate for a particular address and port combination.[30] In the past, this meant that it was not feasible to use name-based virtual hosting with HTTPS. A solution called Server Name Indication (SNI) exists, which sends the hostname to the server before encrypting the connection, although many old browsers do not support this extension. Support for SNI is available since Firefox 2, Opera 8, Safari 2.1, Google Chrome 6, and Internet Explorer 7 on Windows Vista.[31][32][33]

From an architectural point of view:

A sophisticated type of man-in-the-middle attack called SSL stripping was presented at the Blackhat Conference 2009. This type of attack defeats the security provided by HTTPS by changing the https: link into an http: link, taking advantage of the fact that few Internet users actually type “https” into their browser interface: they get to a secure site by clicking on a link, and thus are fooled into thinking that they are using HTTPS when in fact they are using HTTP. The attacker then communicates in clear with the client.[34] This prompted the development of a countermeasure in HTTP called HTTP Strict Transport Security.

HTTPS has been shown vulnerable to a range of traffic analysis attacks. Traffic analysis attacks are a type of side-channel attack that relies on variations in the timing and size of traffic in order to infer properties about the encrypted traffic itself. Traffic analysis is possible because SSL/TLS encryption changes the contents of traffic, but has minimal impact on the size and timing of traffic. In May 2010, a research paper by researchers from Microsoft Research and Indiana University discovered that detailed sensitive user data can be inferred from side channels such as packet sizes. More specifically, the researchers found that an eavesdropper can infer the illnesses/medications/surgeries of the user, his/her family income and investment secrets, despite HTTPS protection in several high-profile, top-of-the-line web applications in healthcare, taxation, investment and web search.[35] Although this work demonstrated vulnerability of HTTPS to traffic analysis, the approach presented by the authors required manual analysis and focused specifically on web applications protected by HTTPS.

The fact that most modern websites, including Google, Yahoo!, and Amazon, use HTTPS causes problems for many users trying to access public Wi-Fi hot spots, because a Wi-Fi hot spot login page fails to load if the user tries to open an HTTPS resource.[36][37] Several websites, such as neverssl.com or nonhttps.com, guarantee that they will always remain accessible by HTTP.

Netscape Communications created HTTPS in 1994 for its Netscape Navigator web browser.[38] Originally, HTTPS was used with the SSL protocol. As SSL evolved into Transport Layer Security (TLS), HTTPS was formally specified by RFC 2818 in May 2000.

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HTTPS – Wikipedia

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Two Quantum Computing Bills Are Coming To Congress

Quantum computing has made it to the United States Congress. “Quantum computing is the next technological frontier that will change the world, and we cannot afford to fall behind,” said Senator Kamala Harris (D-California) in a statement passed to Gizmodo. “We must act now to address the challenges we face in the development of this technology — our future depends on it.” From the report: The bill introduced by Harris in the Senate focuses on defense, calling for the creation of a consortium of researchers selected by the Chief of Naval Research and the Director of the Army Research Laboratory. The consortium would award grants, assist with research, and facilitate partnerships between the members. Another, yet-to-be-introduced bill, seen in draft form by Gizmodo, calls for a 10-year National Quantum Initiative Program to set goals and priorities for quantum computing in the US; invest in the technology; and partner with academia and industry. An office within the Department of Energy would coordinate the program. Another group would include members from the National Science Foundation, the National Institute of Standards and Technology, the Department of Energy, the office of the Director of National Intelligence to coordinate research and education activity between agencies. Furthermore, the draft bill calls for the establishment of up to five Quantum Information Science research centers, as well as two multidisciplinary National Centers for Quantum Research and Education.

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Two Quantum Computing Bills Are Coming To Congress

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Amazon Drive

Amazon Drive: Amazon Drive offers secure cloud storage for your photos, files, videos, and more. Back up your files to the cloud and know that all of your documents are safe. Once your files are uploaded, you can access them from your computer, your phone, or your tablet, all with the Amazon Drive app. All Amazon customers receive 5GB of free storage. Amazon Drive lets you free up space on your phone, tablet, and computer, by backing up all of your documents to one secure place. Sign in to Amazon Drive on the web, or through the free iOS and Android apps, and save, share, organize, and store all of your stuff. Get started on Amazon Drive with 5 GB of free storage.

You can store all of your files, photos, videos, and more. Back up your content to one secure place, and access it from anywhere with the Amazon Drive desktop and mobile apps on iOS and Android. Access all of your documents from anywhere, and share them with friends and family, without having to log on to your computer.

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Amazon Drive

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